Bibliography: Ecology (page 611 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Amanda W. McConney, Grand Rapids Center for Environmental Study, George Dawson, Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton), Fran Schmidt, Winnipeg. Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Alice Friedman, Douglas. Div. of Wildlife Conservation. Alaska State Dept. of Fish and Game, John E. Penick, and Neil De Jong.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1988). The "Visual Cliff" Transformed: A Factoranalytic Definition of Affordances. Report 25. The problem investigated in this study was formulated against a background of the theory of affordance as it was tested with the famous "Visual Cliff" experiment. The present study is based on the assumption that perceivers can detect transformational as well as structural invariants not only in the context of the classical "Visual Cliff" experiments but also when their basic assumptions are transformed into the social realm. On the hypothesis that structural invariants can be defined as an invariant combination of variables of significance for the perception of social structure, a series of three factor analytic studies was conducted with a sample of 611 subjects. The first study involved 214 inservice teachers and 57 high school students in Sweden; the second study involved 180 residents of the Lund-Malmo area of southern Sweden; and the third study involved 160 university and college students in Sweden. The three studies were used to: (1) reduce an initial data set in the empirical approach to the Gibsonian concept of affordance; (2) extend the search for a two-component structure; and (3) confirm the existence of invariance in the affordance structure. Despite different sets of variables, different sample subjects, and a time interval of 7 years, it was possible to infer the existence of two ecological components defining the transformed "Visual Cliff". The first specifies the nature of change (the development of worth), while the second specifies the structure that undergoes change (the visibility of developed worth).   [More]  Descriptors: Change, College Students, Ecology, Factor Analysis

Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton). (1991). Adopt a Stream. This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group leader. Discussion of the factors that affect stream habitat and water quality is supplemented by case studies that can be used as the basis for a debate of positions represented in the studies. The second section provides four sets of activities through which students explore and understand stream and riparian habitat and the effects of resource development. Activities are presented for the five levels through which the program is developed: concept, awareness, investigation, impact, and action. Three appendices contain a glossary of 120 terms, a list of 24 information and funding sources, and a list of curriculum and program links in Alberta. Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Ecology, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries

Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI. (1993). Tree Amigos. Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains projects, activities and resources that can be used in the classroom and in community programs. The first section, "Tree Amigos Action Projects," contains ideas, strategies, and success stories of Tree Amigos programs. It also contains forms, logo sheets, and other materials that can be duplicated. The second section, "Learning Activities," contains activities for all age levels that can help reinforce concepts related to action projects involving a classroom, school, or community. The activities are grouped into five categories: (1) trees; (2) ecosystems; (3) land use; (4) people and resources; and (5) reduce, reuse, and recycle. Materials in the third section, "Background Learning for Teachers," provide information about a variety of subjects that can be related to the action projects and learning activities. Some may serve as hand-outs for advanced junior high and high school students. The final section, "Resources," contains materials for promoting and implementing a Tree Amigos program. The resources include bibliographies, video lists, reference lists, and other materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Cultural Awareness, Cultural Exchange, Ecology

Alaska State Dept. of Fish and Game, Douglas. Div. of Wildlife Conservation. (1989). Alaska Wildlife Week–The Brant Game and the Caribou Game. Unit 7. Together, We Can Help Wildlife. Wildlife is often described as one of Alaska's most important and valuable resources. Helping wildlife can take many forms. This document contains the directions and parts of two games for use with the "Alaska Wildlife Week" materials. The games "Brant for the Future", a simulation of bird and human interactions in the Pacific flyway, and "The Caribou Game", a simulation of caribou population management, are both included. Game boards, activity cards, score cards, background information, directions, and suggestions for modifications and options are contained in this packet. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary School Science

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). (1991). The State of the Environment. This report reviews the progress achieved in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in attaining environmental objectives over the past two decades–the lifetime of most environmental policies and institutions. The report is organized in three parts. Part I examines the agenda for the 1990s: global atmospheric issues, air, inland waters, the marine environment, land, forests, wildlife, solid waste, and noise. Although focused on the relationships between the state of the environment, economic growth, and structural change in OECD countries, the data are analyzed in the context of world ecological and economic interdependence and the need for sustainable development. Part II, "A Changing Economic Context," includes chapters on agriculture, industry, transport, energy, and socio-demographic changes. Part III, "Managing the Environment: Towards Sustainability," details both economic and international responses. The report draws on the OECD's environmental database, as well as other evidence and scientific expertise accumulated by OECD. It also builds on information from national reports on the state of the environment and from national environmental yearbooks now available in most Member countries. A preliminary set of environmental indicators based on this report was published in the same year as a companion volume. Descriptors: Agriculture, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecology

Lourenco, Jose Seixas (1990). The Mission of the Amazonian Universities in Economic Development and Environmental Preservation. The Association of Amazonian Universities (UNAMAZ) was created in September 1987 and is involved in a collective effort to find ways to promote the Amazonian region's nonpredatory development, recognizing its limitations and taking into account its potential. With deforestation taking place at ever-increasing speed, it has become necessary to intensify scientific research using an interdisciplinary approach, with emphasis given to the interaction between natural and social sciences. UNAMAZ programs have focused on preparation and training of human resources for the elaboration and execution of integrated projects, environmental education, and development of an information system in science and technology. UNAMAZ has promoted a series of courses, workshops, seminars, and meetings on scientific and technologic policies, specialist preparation, agri-forestry management, mercury contamination control, and other topics. Participating institutions have reached a consensus about the need to implement new strategies for regional development, based on economic and ecological zoning and a scientific and technological policy to strengthen local universities and research centers. These strategies call for increased cooperation with international organizations and the governments of developed countries. Descriptors: College Role, Conservation (Environment), Cooperative Programs, Ecological Factors

Schmidt, Fran; Friedman, Alice (1990). Come In Spaceship Earth. Kids as Crew Members. Peace Works Series. This program, for grades 4 through 12, introduces students to the concepts that result in cooperative work for the survival and improvement of the quality of life of the human family. In addition to the teacher's guide presented here, the program comes with a music video recorded in seven languages, reproducible pages, a class simulation game, and a poster of Planet Earth. The guide includes the following sections: (1) "To See the World" (an introduction); (2) "Connections"; (3) "Who Speaks for Earth?"; (4) Terra II–A Spaceship Earth Simulation"; and (5) an appendix that lists 17 environmental organizations, 16 resource organizations, 4 young peoples' groups, 3 pen-pal programs, and 5 games and projects. Sections 1-3 are further divided into a total of 16 subsections containing activities and discussion materials, each beginning with brief guidelines for teaching that section. The guide concludes that the interconnection that binds all people and nations must be recognized and developed to ensure the survival of Spaceship Earth. Descriptors: Children, Classroom Techniques, Conservation (Environment), Cooperation

Dawson, George (1991). ScienceVision: An Inquiry-Based Videodisc Science Curriculum. As a result of declining scores, the National Science Foundation has funded numerous materials-development grants. Largest among these is the Interactive Media Science (IMS) Project at Florida State University (FSU) in Tallahassee. This project's mandate is to design, develop, and produce six level III interactive videodisc programs for middle school science instruction. These innovative programs will provide students with numerous opportunities to become involved in activities that would be impossible for them in the normal classroom setting. Using the ScienceVision program, students are able to conduct experiments, visit locations, listen to experts, make decisions, collect data, and solve the problems posed on the videodisc. Factors influencing the design and development of the six discs are: (1) prior research into instructional videodisc technology; (2) characteristics of the target audience; (3) capabilities of the medium; (4) the inquiry-based learning philosophy advocated by the project; and (5) the state of technology in the schools. Developed by experienced teachers, the program was also designed to address the limits of the classroom. The fundamental assumption of ScienceVision is that science education should be multidisciplinary and should provide a general science background for all students. The goals of ScienceVision are twofold: to provide students with a valid understanding of science as a human enterprise and to present science as a search for knowledge based upon interpretation of data. The content, context, cognition, inquiry-based learning, reasons why level III interactive videodiscs should be used, classroom structure, hardware requirements, research with ScienceVision, and educational implications of ScienceVision are topics of discussion. A list of contact persons is included. An overview and status of the project's products are appended. EcoVision, ErgoMotion, AstroVision, Chemical Pursuits, Life Skills, TerraVision, and Water and Weather are the programs that are described.   [More]  Descriptors: Astronomy, Chemistry, Computer Assisted Instruction, Critical Thinking

McConney, Amanda W.; And Others (1994). The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students. In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a spectrum of possibilities previously explored in class activities and discussions. In the second phase of the study, nine science teachers implemented the curriculum unit in their classrooms after attending a two-day training workshop. Teachers first administered environmental decision-making pretests to their students who had been randomly assigned in intact classes to experimental (interdisciplinary rainforest curriculum unit) and control (conventional curriculum) groups. On completion of the three-week unit, environmental decision-making posttests were completed by both experimental and control students. Inferential results implied that students exposed to the interdisciplinary curriculum unit offered more supporting statements for their environmental decisions as compared to control students. It was evident that females used more alternative reasoning categories than their male counterparts when reaching an environmental decision. These results support the use of interdisciplinary curricula for enriching the environmental decision-making of secondary students.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Evaluation, Decision Making

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). (1993). Environmental Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Training Discussion Paper No. 112. This report describes environmental training in the Federal Republic of Germany, confined to that provided in vocational schools and industrial establishments. It also covers the further training of environmental trainers in such establishments. Following an introduction (Chapter I), Chapter II outlines the politico-educational background of job-related environmental studies. The next four chapters (Chapters III-VI), examine the integration of environmental protection into four training sectors by means of examples or case studies, referring also to the organizational context in each case. These chapters focus on environmental studies in on-the-job training, environmental studies in the further training of training personnel, environmental training in technical colleges, and environmental training in further training for teachers. Chapter VII maps out perspectives for the improvement of environmental training in the sectors examined, on the basis of the programs described and of the current debate on environmental training. (Sixty endnotes are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Conservation (Environment), Continuing Education, Developed Nations

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office. (1990). Great Minds? Great Lakes!. This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a variety of hands-on activities designed to illustrate the major points of each lesson. A map of the Great Lakes is provided for photocopying and can be used with the discussion points and activities. Topics include the history of the Great Lakes, shipwrecks, water use, acid rain, air pollution, lake clean-up, groundwater, surface runoff, industrial runoff, and sediment pollution. General facts about each of the Great Lakes are listed.    [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Education

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). (1991). Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote. This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is comprised of 18 environmental indicators, followed by 7 key indicators reflecting economic and population changes of environmental significance. It includes indicators of environmental performance, some relating to environmental quality itself (e.g., river quality, nature protection), some to national environmental goals (e.g., sustainable use of water resources, controlling waste generation), and some to international environmental agreements and issues (e.g., sulphur oxide emissions, trade in forest products). For each indicator, an introductory statement is given, accompanied by the basic data and a graphic illustration providing information on trends since 1970, where possible, as well as information on the present state. The document is printed in both English and French versions in parallel columns. Descriptors: Agriculture, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecology

De Jong, Neil, Comp. (1991). An Activity Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park. Grades 4-6. Everglades National Park is recognized as one of the most threatened National Parks in the country. Human and technological intervention has affected the park's water resources, fauna and flora through the introduction of foreign species. This curriculum-based activity guide is intended for intermediate grade students. It has been designed from a myriad of educational activities mutually created by classroom teachers and park staff, and used in the park's Environmental Education program. It is designed to meet the needs of teachers and students who may never visit the park as well as for on-site lessons about the everglades ecosystem. The document presents the following: (1) four activities to introduce students to the purpose of the National Park System, and basic concepts associated with the Everglades ecosystem; (2) six activities that introduce components of the ecosystem, the interrelation of these components, and recommendations for future use of the environment that will impact these components; (3) seven activities that focus on the importance of plants and trees in the Everglades, and an evaluation scheme concerning future human impact upon them; (4) 12 activities that focus on the wildlife of the Everglades food chains; (5) eight activities involving the issues of timing, quantity, quality, and distribution of water resources in the Everglades; and (6) a series of appendices that provide background information for the activities, supplementary activities, songs, a vocabulary of common Everglade and ecological terms, and a list of resource materials and bibliography. Each lesson plan begins with a section containing pertinent subject areas, length of activity, location, and key vocabulary. This section is followed by instructional objectives and methods, background information, materials, procedures, and an evaluation section.   [More]  Descriptors: Biodiversity, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Endangered Species

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. (1991). Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide. This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially the same through the first 16 pages, after which the core units vary appropriately for each academic level. Three themes and units within those themes which are carried through the K-4 program include: (1) environmental interdependency and interaction– microbes and ecosystems (grade 7); (2) matter and energy–light /physical properties/physical changes or matter (grade 7); and (3) earth, time and space–rocks, minerals and soils/the observable universe (grade 7). Appendices include: (1) K-9 program overview; (2) science processes development: K-9; (3) science processes development: problem solving, K-9; (4) objectives and concepts for STS interactions; (5) K-9 STS content; (6) uses of computers in science; (7) safety in science; (8) women in science; (9) science fairs; (10) basic equipment lists for grades 5-9; (11) directions for using the microscope; and (12) a copy of the response questionnaire for the K-9 program of studies. Descriptors: Astronomy, Chemistry, Classroom Environment, Curriculum Guides

Penick, John E., Ed. (1986). Earth Science. Focus on Excellence, Volume 3, Number 3. Eight examples of innovative and outstanding earth science programs are described. These programs were selected using state criteria and at least four independent reviewers. While Project Synthesis offered a desired state, these examples of excellence provided views of what is already a reality. The goals of an exemplary science program are provided along with the criteria for excellence. Programs described are: (1) "Computer Assisted Laboratory Science"; (2) "Geology Is"; (3) "Ninth Grade Earth Science"; (4) "Accelerated Earth and Space Science"; (5) "Earth Science for the Twenty-First Century"; (6) "Indoor, Outdoor Earth Science"; (7) "Middle Earth Science"; and (8) "Earth Science Program." A review and critique of earth science exemplary programs is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Critical Thinking, Demonstration Programs, Earth Science

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