Bibliography: Ecology (page 616 of 627)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kay Fairwell, Sonja Shearer, Warren C. Gilfillan, Arie R. Korporaal, Puxico Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, Donald R. Hammerman, Arthur B. Sacks, Manhattan. Extension Service. Kansas State Univ, Willis R. M. Schott, and Craig B. Davis.

Palma, Alfred J. (1978). Site Guide to Sunken Meadow State Park. Revised. Sunken Meadow State Park provides a year round three-fold ecosystem (marine beach, salt marsh, and wooded upland) of 1,266 acres for Suffolk County (NY) teachers and students to use as a site for outdoor education activities. While teachers can rely on the support of the Outdoor Learning Laboratories' staff for aid in emergencies, for clarifying unforeseeable contingencies, and for providing materials and equipment, teachers are expected to be self-sufficient leaders when bringing students to the Park. Therefore, teachers are required to complete a 30-hour summer inservice instruction program prior to bringing their students to the Park for a day-long class trip during the year. Successful completion of inservice training and implementation of a day-use program qualifies a teacher for participation in week-long residential camp experiences. In addition to detailing the teacher training program, this guide provides teachers with: background information on the formation of the Park and its present day flora and fauna; maps and directions for reaching the Park; safety, first aid, and emergency procedures; conservation practices; and descriptions of available instructional and audio-visual materials, including procedures for their care and storage. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.; Davis, Craig B., Ed. (1979). Current Issues V: The Yearbook of Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Selected Papers from the Eighth Annual Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education. These proceedings are divided into two major sections. Section I contains papers based on original research and thought and are intended as examples of products of rigorous scholarship. This section is subdivided into three subsections covering the future, the present, and the past. Papers appearing in this section were reviewed by at least two researchers selected for their expertise relative to the article being examined. Twelve papers appear in this section. The second section includes descriptive or journalistic papers and program reviews. Papers for this section are intended to be useful and of interest to environmental educators. In all, 16 papers appear in Section II. A section of guidelines for authors concludes the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum, Ecology

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others (1978). Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance. Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary of terms and words provided for each area is the basis of many of the learning activities which include charts, matching, drawing, labeling, completing study sheets, and games (bingo, crossword puzzles, word searches, word scrambles). The activities specifically address: the water cycle; crayfish; pH; dissolved oxygen; trees; tree measuring; ecosystems; and land use planning. A Teacher's Guide accompanies the workbook. Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver. (1976). Environmental Law II. Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment discusses water law in Colorado, water resources, and federally reserved water rights; (2) A Panorama of Environmental Laws presents an overview of laws dealing with radiation, noise, historical preservation, pesticides, and wildlife; (3) Federal Freedom of Information Act asks, "Who must disclose what, and to whom?" and "What information qualifies as confidential?"; (4) NEPA: Introduction and Current Developments discusses the National Environmental Policy Act; (5) Development on Federal Lands presents information on overlapping state and federal agencies; (6) Land Use Control in Colorado–Impact on Community Development surveys state legislation involving land use; (7) Air Quality Control discusses regulation of real estate development; (8) National Flood Insurance Program summarizes current developments in insurance coverage regulations; and (9) Water Quality Control discusses regulation of real estate development and water quality standards.   [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Community Development, Conference Reports, Ecology

Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service. (). Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program. The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information, material lists, pre- and post-activity suggestions, and directions for the activity itself, which usually centers around a field trip. Subjects include exploring the environment through touch, smell, sound, and sight; environmental observation and photography; litter; solid waste disposal; and lichens. The final "key" is a lesson for teachers on writing teaching units for outdoor education. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Copeland, Arthur R.; Hammerman, Donald R., Ed. (1976). British Environmental Education: A Perspective. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 21. British environmental education differs somewhat from that of the United States. In the U.S. "environmental education" refers to the teaching of a set of concepts by which one might learn to appreciate, conserve and protect the natural environment. In Great Britain many of the same objectives and procedures of the U.S. system are employed, but they are accomplished through more varied means. Conservation is still of importance, but the impact is stressed through more direct involvement of the individual through both formal activities and recreational experiences where pleasure and appreciation are part of the expected results. Environmental education in Great Britain was influenced by two issues: (1) the work of environmentalists in their efforts to clean up the material and aesthetical spoilage left by the industrial revolution and (2) the emergence of the environment as a teaching tool that could take children out of the classroom into the reality of a first-hand experience. Environmental education in England takes many forms from natural studies in the class to week-long trips to Field Study Centers where skills such as camping or sailing are taught. The final section of this paper describes three examples of environmental activities in which the author participated. These included a town survey, compass activities, and a trip to a county environmental center where children may visit from one day to a week to learn specific activities and apply lessons learned in class. Descriptors: Aesthetic Education, Comparative Analysis, Conservation Education, Definitions

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI. (1974). Environmental Education Guide; Language Arts 7-8. Written for use with junior high school students, this handbook links natural ecological issues with language arts instruction. It contains a series of lesson plans, each offering a number of suggested learning activities for use both in and out of class. The lessons are built around 12 major environmental concepts that form a framework for each subject area. In addition, each lesson offers subject area integration, multidisciplinary activities, cognitive and affective behavioral objectives, and suggested reference and resource materials for both the teacher and student. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Ecology, English Curriculum, English Instruction

Shearer, Sonja; And Others (1980). Gloucester Marine Biology Unit. Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of marine life, interpretation of weather conditions, and use of topographical maps. General goals are for students to realize the importance of science in their own lives, to work successfully with their classmates, and to gain respect for the environment and all its habitants. Activities include collecting and identifying plant and animal life, using cameras and microscopes to obtain data, observing tidal changes and weather conditions (over a 40-hour period), exploring the harbor in dories, and visiting a local museum. Materials for students are summaries of important characteristics of salt marsh and tidal pool ecosystems, and discussion questions guiding interpretation of student observations. Forms are provided for specimen identification and for students' narrative evaluations of the field trip. A teacher evaluation cites successful outcomes of the trip. Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Course Evaluation, Course Objectives, Curriculum Guides

Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, Puxico, MO. (). Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Environmental Education Program: Teacher's Handbook. A wide diversity of interesting plant and animal life can be observed and studied at Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, the last sizeable example of the swampland which once covered millions of acres in the area. Many of the species here, such as the swamp rabbit, are rare elsewhere in the state. The refuge's archaeological and historical resources are equally diverse. Mingo's original purpose was to provide a resting and wintering area for waterfowl. Today educational experiences are also provided on the refuge. School groups are offered two types of activities–self-guided tours and planned field activities. For the tours, refuge personnel provide a short orientation talk to the class and go over the route to be taken with the teacher. For the planned field activities, lesson plans are provided. Refuge staff will sometimes be able to assist in conducting these activities. This handbook includes examples of the lesson plans. Topics covered are: observation and perception, habitat investigation (energy cycle), basic measuring, rural life and the Depression, compass use, contour mapping, creative writing and nature, art and nature, cemetery study, land use study (pioneer homestead), aquatic biology, transect study, soils and erosion, observing and classifying trees, and creative communication using nature as a stimulus. Descriptors: Art, Biological Sciences, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Development

Korporaal, Arie R., Ed. (1975). Nature's Classroom. A Guide for the Los Angeles County Outdoor School. Promoting understandings in outdoor science and conservation is the primary goal of the Los Angeles County Outdoor School as presented in this guide to its five-day resident program for elementary school pupils. The purpose of various program components is briefly described, including hikes, cabin living, campfires, conservation projects, crafts, dining hall, evaluation and planning, flag ceremony, folk dance and folk singing, library and museum visits, and specialists. A sample daily schedule gives approximate times for a typical day. The 1973-74 curriculum is outlined under four major concepts: (1) an ecosystem consists of natural communities of plants and animals interrelated and interacting with their physical environment, (2) man's attitudes and way of life create an ecological impact on the environment; man's survival depends on his ability to minimize this impact, (3) the earth is in constant motion producing regular predictable changes in the environment to which man adapts, (4) outdoor school is a minicommunity in which each pupil can participate as a citizen and creative person. Under each, activities to accomplish objectives are given, with both outdoor school and classroom learning opportunities, many of which provide for multicultural experiences. The appendix has a glossary in both English and Spanish and site information on the outdoor school. Descriptors: Activities, Concept Formation, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum

Brown, Eric R. (1975). Reading Improvement Through Marine Environment Exploration. The Reading Improvement Through Marine Environment Exploration Project involved five classes of fifth grade students from three schools in Staten Island, New York. It was funded under the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Title I. The classes were selected by principals and teachers from the respective schools on the basis of students' educational deficiencies related to reading. A total of 105 students participated in this two month program. It involved utilization of the resources of the Gateway National Park. The rationale for the program was that content related reading skills could be improved through actual investigative manipulative activities in a natural environment. It was predicted that this kind of activity would be supportive of reading and writing exercises. The program concentrated on three selected skills for reading in the content area: (1) fact, fiction, and opinion, (2) classification, and (3) construction and interpretation of graphs. Activities designed for students included: mapping the area they were working in, collecting material from the beach, studying wild life, and planting and raising flora indigenous to the shore area. An analysis of the subtest scores for each of the three SRA Reading Diagnostic "Probe" Tests concerned with fact and opinion, classification, and graphs, indicated significant differences between pre and post measures, even within the short time span and three times a week schedule of the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Content Area Reading, Ecology, Elementary Education, Environmental Education

Schott, Willis R. M., Ed. (1973). Lindbergh School District Outdoor Education '73/'74. Since 1968, Lindbergh School District fifth graders have participated in a five day resident camp program designed to foster an appreciation for nature, to promote self-reliance while developing emotional maturity, and to provide a communal living experience with peers and teachers. The handbook is a composite of teachers', administrators', and students' efforts toward developing this Outdoor Education Program. Every phase of the camp program and its organization is detailed, including a description of the school district, a history of the Outdoor Education Program, camp rules, counselor application procedures and responsibilities, health services, camp library resources, camp schedules, camper responsibilities, flag ceremonies, weather observation procedures, get acquainted activities, songs, and pre-trip orientation plans. Curriculum materials focus on tree identification, soils and geology, pond life, insect study, animal study, fishing, archery, and art, and include lesson plans, activities, work sheets, and appropriate student hand outs. Student and teacher evaluation forms are presented along with samples of certificates, checklists, and charts. Descriptors: Activities, Animal Behavior, Art, Camping

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others (1978). Teacher's Guide for Students Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance. To be used by sixth grade teachers in preparing their classes for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School Program, the guide to the Student Preparation Workbook provides general information, descriptions, game materials, and answers to exercises and puzzles. The guide is divided into four resource areas: soil, water, plants, and animals. Each section consists of introductory information, a glossary, and various learning activities and games. Although the material is not organized into complex lesson plans, there are suggestions for use of the activities. Some general environmental material is included. Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Meyer, Jeanie Keeny; Levine, Daniel U. (1977). Identification of Neighborhood Type and Its Utility in Prediction of Achievement. Just as urban ecologists have shown that social behavior such as delinquency is related to spatial patterns, educational achievement should logically be related to socio-spatial patterns. Accordingly, the hypothesis of the present study is that school neighborhoods can be ecologically grouped so as to enhance the prediction of achievement. The elementary schools of three large public school districts in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area constitute the population in this study. The unit of analysis used in this study is the individual elementary school as outlined by its attendance area. Two working hypotheses were formulated: (1) school neighborhoods can be grouped into meaningful homogeneous types; and (2) including neighborhood type will significantly improve prediction of academic achievement over and above socioeconomic variables which are known to account for a substantial proportion of the variation in achievement among students in the public schools. Fifteen typologies of neighborhoods were produced by manipulating various combinations of factor and cluster analyses. It was found that neighborhood type as delineated by several typological approaches did significantly improve the prediction of academic achievement over and above variance attributable to the best socioeconomic predictors. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cluster Analysis, Community Characteristics, Ecology

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others (1976). The OBIS Trail Module. Trial Version. Designed to allow youngsters aged 10 to 15 to experience the challenges and problems environmental investigators might face making an environmental impact study, the trial version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trail Module focuses on aspects of construction-related environment problems. Four activities are included in the Module: (1) "Trail Impact Study", in which participants plan a safe, convenient footpath that will have minimal impact on the site; (2) "Cardiac Hill", in which participants use pulse rates as a guide to finding the maximum steepness for a trail along which hikers can walk comfortably; (3) "Hold a Hill", an activity to determine how steep a trail can be before excessive erosion occurs; and (4) "Trail Construction", finding the best construction technique for the site. The individual, water-proof folio for each activity includes activity explanation, preparation, materials, action, discussion, and follow up. Other materials are an overview of the Module and OBIS, and an equipment card indicating how to make inexpensive metric materials for measuring slope.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Biology, Construction (Process), Ecology

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