Bibliography: Climate Change (page 429 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Lisa K. Langley, Brian Kennedy, Michele McNeil, Chinese Education and Society, Floyd Beachum, Shawn Ni, Marleen C. Pugach, Ernestine Enomoto, Mark Ehlert, and Dolores Goughnour.

Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark (2009). Teacher Pension Incentives and Labor Market Behavior: Evidence from Missouri Administrative Teacher Data. Conference Paper 2009-11, National Center on Performance Incentives. Policy discussions about teacher quality and teacher "shortages" often focus on recruitment and retention of young teachers. However, attention has begun to focus on the incentive effects of teacher retirement benefit systems, particularly given their rising costs and the large unfunded liabilities. In this paper we analyze accrual of pension wealth for teachers in a representative defined benefit teacher pension system. Missouri substantially enhanced retirement benefits during the 1990's in response to a booming stock market. We estimate the current costs of those enhancements, and evidence of their effects on teacher retention and retirement. We construct forward-looking measures of teacher pension wealth and show that the actual distribution of teacher retirements can be approximated by simple models which assume that teachers retire when pension wealth is maximized. While retirement age is rising in other sectors of the economy, these pension enhancements appear to have lowered the average experience and age of retiring public school teachers in Missouri. Calculation of Current and Maximum Pension Wealth is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Retirement, Public School Teachers, Teacher Persistence, Labor Market

Moore, Donald R.; Hyde, Arthur A. (1981). Making Sense of Staff Development: An Analysis of Staff Development Programs and Their Costs in Three Urban School Districts. To increase understanding of teacher staff development in the United States, a research study of staff development programs and their associated costs was undertaken in three large urban school districts. These districts were selected as having, respectively, high, medium and low apparent levels of staff development activity. The study was designed primarily to construct a method for analyzing staff development programs in other school districts with a focus on organizational routines and related costs. Data were collected through interviews with school district personnel and through examination of pertinent documents. From the information collected, descriptions, analyses, and comparisons of the three school districts were made in terms of: numbers of teachers and pupils; education expenditures and funding sources; organizational structure; staff development activities at central office, district, and school levels; teacher participation in staff development; and staff development expenditures. Analysis showed that patterns of actual staff development activity and resource allocation contradicted conventional ideas of how staff development is conducted. A major conclusion was that the weak political position of staff development and the organizational dynamics of school districts make unlikely any substantial reforms of actual staff development practices in the near future.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Expenditures, Inservice Teacher Education, Organizational Climate

Goldring, Ellen; Cravens, Xiu (2007). Teacher's Academic Press for Learning in Charter and Traditional Public Schools, National Center on School Choice, Vanderbilt University (NJ3). Research on school effectiveness continues to indicate that those aspects of schooling that are closest to the student, namely teaching, instruction, and curriculum, have the greatest impact on student learning (see Gamoran, Nystrand, Berends, & LePore, (1995). Furthermore, the available evidence suggests that schools that cultivate particular in-school processes and conditions such as developing a shared vision and instructional norms, and taking collective responsibility for students' academic success are better able to meet the needs of all students (Bryk & Driscoll, 1985; Newmann & Wehlage, 1995; Purkey & Smith, 1983). In contrast, much of the research on charter schools has focused on aspects of governance structures (Kirst, 2006; Levin, 2006), issues of access and equity (Schneider, Teske, & Marshall, 2000; Laciereno-Paquet, Holyoke, Moser & Henig, 2002) and parent preferences and choice processes (Schneider & Buckley, 2002). More charter school research is needed on the important in-school conditions that are related to student learning and achievement. In this paper the authors ask, do charter school teachers indicate higher levels of academic press for learning than traditional public school teachers (choice qua choice)? To what extent is the level of teacher academic press for learning dependent upon in-school organizational conditions that are associated with effective schools, such as strong instructional leadership? And, are charter schools more likely than traditional public schools to implement the in-school organizational conditions that are associated with teachers' academic press for learning? The authors posit that for charter schools to enable positive student outcomes and affect student achievement, they must implement the core components of schooling that are related to effective organizational conditions, curriculum, and instruction. An appendix is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, Public School Teachers, Academic Achievement, School Effectiveness

McNeil, Michele (2009). Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top", Education Week. As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642 hours, according to the U.S. Department of Education, which included that estimate in its 35-page draft guidelines for the Race to the Top competition, published late last month in the "Federal Register." That's a lot of staff time for state education departments, which have been stung by staffing woes and budget cuts caused largely by a national recession, declining tax revenues, and big state budget deficits. The Race to the Top competition, officially kicked off by President Obama last month in a speech at the federal Education Department, will judge states on 19 criteria that range from how sophisticated their data systems are to whether they allow unlimited numbers of charter schools. The department will award an undetermined number of states for innovative education reform proposals that center on improving academic standards, teacher quality, data collection, and the lowest-performing schools. The department is accepting comments on the draft criteria before making them final in October, after which states will have 60 days to apply for Phase 1 of the grants. The second phase will begin early next year. The job of competing for Race to the Top grants is more than just filling in blanks on an application or securing letters of support for key stakeholders–one of the criteria on which states will be judged. Education Secretary Duncan has said he wants innovative proposals that move states beyond the status quo.   [More]  Descriptors: Statewide Planning, Charter Schools, Teacher Effectiveness, Recognition (Achievement)

Busher, Hugh; Barker, Bernard (2003). The Crux of Leadership: Shaping School Culture by Contesting the Policy Contexts and Practices of Teaching and Learning, Educational Management & Administration. Longitudinal study of leadership and transformation of organizational culture in one state school in England in the late 1990s. Explores how three head teachers applied power effectively in three distinct areas: within the school and its departments, with the local government and communities, and with the central government and its agencies. (Contains 40 references.) Descriptors: Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Instruction, Leadership

Beachum, Floyd; Dentith, Audrey M. (2004). Teacher Leaders Creating Cultures of School Renewal and Transformation, Educational Forum, The. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of 25 teacher leaders in five schools within a large midwestern city school district. Data was collected through unstructured interviews and observations of teachers. Three central themes appeared repeatedly, and explain the presence of and support for teachers as leaders, including: (1) specific school structures and organizational patterns; (2) particular processes and identities; and (3) a deliberate use of outside resources with consistent, strong community relationships. Conclusions assert the possibility of teacher leadership as a model and theory of leadership for school renewal.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Leadership, Ethnography, Urban Areas, Interviews

Agullard, Kim; Goughnour, Dolores (2006). Central Office Inquiry: Assessing Organization, Roles, and Functions to Support School Improvement, WestEd (NJ3). Schools working to raise student achievement need the help of an organized, focused central office. Yet many districts lack unified direction, agreement on the central office role in supporting school improvement, and coherence and alignment between goals and strategies. Drawing on the findings of a three-year study of several districts focused on improving their schools, this book is intended to help central office leadership and staff examine their organizational arrangement, their enacted roles, and their day-to-day activities, critically questioning both their theories of action and how their work is concretely helping the schools they serve. Chapter I explores the constraints under which districts operate, addressing the impact of local context, federal and state policy, a district's governing board, and local and national organizations. Chapter II deals with how districts can move forward, developing a cohesive central office theory of action with aligned roles and functions. Chapter III turns to the topic of supporting school improvement through implementation of aligned structures. The book includes exercises and activities designed to engage staff in this inquiry process. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Examining Support for Continuous District Improvement; (2) Understanding the District Context; (3) Creating an Aligned Theory of Action; (4) Conclusion; (5) A Note About the Try It Outs; and (6) References.   [More]  Descriptors: National Organizations, Governing Boards, Educational Improvement, Administrator Role

Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California (2005). The Opportunities and Challenges of Partnering with Schools. While the benefits of partnerships between school and external groups are many (building social capital, enhancing educational reform, creating stronger communities, increasing academic achievements, and enhancing school performance), creating effective partnerships does not always come easily. One of the first decisions that organizations interested in partnering need to examine is the type of partnership they would like to form, as there are different strategies for engaging in collaborations versus cooperative arrangements. Partnerships that rely on each other to accomplish joint goals fall into the category of collaboration. Cooperative arrangements typically involve coordination in which the partners network and share information together. The next major step for leaders who are helping to facilitate partnerships is to examine common challenges that might thwart their efforts: a lack of planning or trust, maintaining faith, understanding different organizational cultures, dissimilar goals, and poor communication. Each of these issues represents the major areas identified in the literature on failed partnerships. Research on successful partnerships demonstrates that several practices can improve success: (1) Develop clear, mutually derived, and attainable goals in a shared vision; (2) Conduct intensive planning; (3) Ensure leadership; (4) Foster frequent, open, an ongoing communication; (5) Develop clear policies and roles; (6) Create clear decision-making processes; (7) Designate funds, staff, materials, and time; (8) Conduct evaluation; and (9) Create mutual relationships and trust. In addition to following these practices, leaders should make sure that partnerships move through three important phases: initiation, commitment, and institutionalization. Each of these stages requires best practices to achieve success. For example, planning, communication, and trust building are particularly important during courtship. At the commitment phase, policy development and decision-making structures become important, while during institutionalization, evaluation should be emphasized. An awareness of challenges, best practices, and the stages of partnership will ensure success for organizations that are interested in working with schools. (Contains 1 chart and 1 footnote.) [This report was published by the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California.]   [More]  Descriptors: Partnerships in Education, Educational Change, Social Capital, Organizational Theories

Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon (2007). Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader, Journal of Research on Leadership Education. In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which specifies individual actions and organization influences. Our findings indicated how an individual can act independently as well as be shaped by the organization and professional affiliations. Beyond the model, however, we found that the political dynamics in the case must be factored into how socialization occurs. These findings suggest ways to think about professional development for higher education leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Socialization, Administrators, Qualitative Research

Douglass, John Aubrey (2010). Higher Education Budgets and the Global Recession: Tracking Varied National Responses and Their Consequences. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.10, Center for Studies in Higher Education. In the midst of the global recession, how have national governments viewed the role of higher education in their evolving strategies for economic recovery? Demand for higher education generally goes up during economic downturns. Which nations have proactively protected funding for their universities and colleges to help maintain access, to help retrain workers, and to mitigate unemployment rates? And which nations have simply made large funding cuts for higher education in light of the severe downturn in tax revenues? This essay provides a moment-in-time review of the fate of higher education among a number of OECD nations and other countries, with a particular focus on the United States, and on California–the largest state in terms of population "and" in the size of its economy. Preliminary indicators show that most nations have not thus far resorted to uncoordinated cutting of funding for higher education that we generally see in US state systems. Their political leaders see higher education as a key to short-term economic recovery, long-term competitiveness, and often their own political viability–particularly in nations with upcoming elections. Further, although this is speculative, it appears that many nations are using the economic downturn to actually accelerate reform policies, some intended to promote efficiencies, but most focused on improving the quality of their university sector and promoting innovation in their economies. One might postulate that the decisions made today and in reaction to the "Great Recession" by nations will likely speed up global shifts in the race to develop human capital, with the US probably losing some ground. The Obama administration's first stimulus package helped mitigate large state budget cuts to public services in 2009-10 and to support expanded enrollments largely at the community college level. But it was not enough to avoid having universities and colleges lay off faculty and staff, reduce salaries and benefits, often eliminating course offerings that slow student progress towards a degree, or making sizable reductions in access in states such as California. States have very limited ability to borrow funds for operating costs, making the federal government the last resort. "In short, how state budgets go, so goes US higher education; whereas most national systems of higher education financing is tied to national budgets with an ability to borrow." Without the current stimulus funding, the impact on access and maintaining the health of America's universities would have been even more devastating. But that money will be largely spent by the 2011 fiscal year (Oct 2010-Sept 2011), unless Congress and the White House renew funding support on a similar scale for states that are coping with projected large budget gaps. That now seems unlikely. The Obama administration announced its proposed 2011 budget in February, including $25 billion in state aid targeted for Medicaid. This is a modest contribution to states that face projected cumulative budget deficits of $142 billion in 2011, and there is uncertainty regarding the final federal budget. This is because Obama's proposal will be debated and voted on in a Congress increasingly focused on stemming the tide of rising federal budget deficits. Without substantially more federal aid to state governments, many public colleges and universities will face another major round of budget cuts. There is the prospect that higher education degree production rates in the US will dip in the near term, particularly in states like California that have substantially reduced access to higher education even as enrollment demand has gone up. (Contains 49 footnotes and 4 figures.) [A version of this paper was presented at the Beijing Forum, University of Peking, November 7, 2009.]   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Human Capital, Federal Aid, Taxes

Pugach, Marleen C.; Blanton, Linda P.; Correa, Vivian I.; McLeskey, James; Langley, Lisa K. (2009). The Role of Collaboration in Supporting the Induction and Retention of New Special Education Teachers. NCIPP Document Number RS-2, National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the role of professional collaboration within the school context as a means of improving the quality and retention of beginning special education teachers (SETs). The assumption underlying the review is that the local school context in which new SETs work should also function as the primary source of induction support for GETs and SETs alike. As such, the audience for this review is both general and special educators, school building administrators, and central services staff in both general and special education, all of whom have interconnected responsibilities for the success of new SETs and whose actions can directly contribute to their professional longevity. With this assumption in mind, two questions guide this analysis: (1) If the school is viewed as the major context within which induction takes place, what aspects of the school as a community need to be taken into consideration when building strong induction policies and practices for SETs?; and (2) What is the relationship between capacity building for induction at the school level through a variety of collaborative practices that treat SETs as fully participating members of the school's learning community and any discipline-specific support related to the unique role and needs of special educators, and how might general and special educators' efforts in this regard intersect to create effective connections and an appropriate balance between the two? Drawing on the literature from both general and special education, four major issues are addressed, which include: (1) How are novice SETs situated within the concept and practice of schools as PLCs?; (2) What roles do building principals play in creating school communities that support the induction of SETs?; (3) What professional development practices might best serve as vehicles for improving the quality of new SETs' practice?; and (4) What is the role of co-teaching or teacher teaming as a collaborative enterprise for the induction of SETs? Each section of the paper explores one of these issues as related to support for the induction of SETs. Literature from general education that has direct applicability to building capacity for the induction of SETs at the school site through collaboration, as well as literature that addresses SETs more directly, is included. The paper includes charts of empirical studies that have informed the review as well as recommendations for practice and research. The conclusion explores themes across all four sections of the review.   [More]  Descriptors: Special Education Teachers, Literature Reviews, Educational Quality, Teacher Improvement

Lam, Y. L. Jack (2001). Toward Reconceptualizing Organizational Learning: A Multidimensional Interpretation, International Journal of Educational Management. Drawing on the organizational learning literature, reorders Senge's (1990) five capacities to show how individual learning can normally be developed into collective learning. Identifies the important roles played by the external environment and internal organizational conditions, which may facilitate or deter the process. Descriptors: Learning Processes, Learning Theories, Organizational Change, Organizational Climate

Hooghart, Anne M. (2006). Educational Reform in Japan and Its Influence on Teachers' Work, International Journal of Educational Research. The 2002 restructuring of the national curriculum in all Japanese public elementary and secondary schools includes a reduction and reallocation of instructional hours, and the addition of a new "integrated studies" course, with an emphasis on more individualized, cross-curricular thematic projects. This reform comes at a time when a stagnant economy puts increased pressure on a shrinking youth population and on educators to obtain and preserve job security despite school closures and a weakened teacher's union. Teacher accountability includes contractual, professional, and moral accountability at a variety of interconnected levels. While the curriculum reform rhetoric frames the benefits of the plan primarily in terms of national and community-level outcomes, the strongest teacher accountability mechanisms seem to occur at the prefectural, school, and individual levels. At the national and prefectural levels, employment- and training-related mechanisms operate to ensure compliance with policy. At the community level, collegial, and political ties also impact teacher accountability, but in ways essentially consistent with national and prefectural expectations. At the school and individual levels, teacher obligations to administrators, parents, and students begin to conflict with teacher accountability to those at higher levels, primarily in terms of the traditions and expectations challenged by the reform policy.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Change, Curriculum Development, Public Schools

Mindnich, Jessica; Kennedy, Brian; Schutjer-Mance, Kristi (2010). California Report Card 2011: Setting the Agenda for Children, Children Now. This year's "Report Card" breaks new ground by providing "The Children's Agenda", which details the top ten high-priority, high-impact actions California policymakers should take to reverse the declining status of children. It's clear any sound plan to revitalize the state must prioritize children's development. California's history backs this up, as do countless examples from across the nation and around the world. And yet, for decades, the state has failed to do so. Topics covered in the "Agenda" include a comprehensive P-to-12th-grade education reform and revenue package, coordinating and streamlining the delivery of children's services, effectively implementing federal health care reform and reducing childhood obesity rates, among others. All of which reflect deep documentation and the collective expertise of the children's policy field. As in previous years, the "Report Card" analyzes and grades the key domains of children's well-being. This year's grades range from Ds for K-12, Oral Health and Integrated Services to the only B achieved, a B+ for Afterschool, giving the state an overall grade point average of C- (or 1.69). (Contains 485 endnotes.) [This paper was written with the assistance of Samuel Chun, Alexandria Ludlow, Tim Morrison and Krista Olson. For the 2010 report, see ED509740.]   [More]  Descriptors: Integrated Services, Obesity, Elementary Secondary Education, Child Health

Chinese Education and Society (2005). Plan for Reforming Beijing University's Engagements and Promotions System. This article reports about the plan for reforming Beijing university's engagements and promotion system. The leadership of Beijing University conducted in-depth deliberations on the university's work of building up its faculty contingent in light of the aim of establishing a world-class university and the situation and tasks faced in the current period, and reached a unanimity of opinion on reforming the university's faculty personnel system. The present personnel management system must be reformed and perfected in order to increase the vitality and competitiveness of the university's faculty contingent. Reform of the personnel system involves many aspects, and the most central of these aspects is the system for engaging and promoting faculty. This plan advances proposals with regard to the basic principles and main content of the reform of Beijing University's system for engaging and promoting faculty. All schools and departments should formulate implementation plans and detailed rules and regulations in accordance with the basic spirit and stipulations of this plan and in association with the specific circumstances of each school and department. (Contains 4 endnotes.) [This report was translated by Ted Wang.]   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Opinions, College Faculty, Universities

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