Bibliography: Climate Change (page 447 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Julie L. Nicklin, Halldor Bachmann, Robert B. Duncan, Joanne Cooper, Andy Hargreaves, David E. McNabb, Washington Extension Service (USDA), Robert Birnbaum, Judy Polumbaum, and William H. Shubert.

Birnbaum, Robert (1990). Negotiating in an Anarchy: Faculty Collective Bargaining and Organizational Cognition. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. Symbolic and cognitive organizational perspectives were used to analyze a case study of a complete academic bargaining cycle. The researcher, as participant-observer, had access to all bargaining sessions and to both union and administration caucuses. Although bargaining is often considered a rational process, this case illuminated the processes and outcomes of negotiation under conditions of loose coupling and bounded rationality. Negotiations showed the three major characteristics of organized anarchies, and had outcomes more symbolic than instrumental. People bargained to get what they wanted, but also bargained so that they wanted what they got; attitudes followed as well as preceded behavior, and although the bargaining was in part goal-directed, goals were also bargain-directed. Bargaining did not affect institutional operations, but it did help participants arrive at more consistent interpretations of institutional life. Includes 17 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Change, Collective Bargaining, College Faculty, Conflict Resolution

Duncan, Robert B. (1972). Characteristics of Organizational Environments and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Administrative Science Quarterly. Twenty-two decision groups in three manufacturing and three research and development organizations are studied to identify the characteristics of the environment that contribute to decision unit members experiencing uncertainty in decisionmaking. Descriptors: Decision Making, Decision Making Skills, Environmental Influences, Feedback

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC. (1991). Pathway to Diversity: Strategic Plan for the Cooperative Extension System's Emphasis on Diversity. Working Document. This document is the working draft of a guide to develop a strategic plan for emphasizing diversity in the Cooperative Extension System (CES). It begins with a foreword outlining the history of the movement toward increasing emphasis on diversity in the CES and an introduction stating the CES's commitment to emphasizing diversity. The next seven sections are as follows: a list of strategic goals; the rationale for emphasizing diversity; a comparison of Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action (EEO/AA) guidelines and the CES's emphasis on diversity; a description of steps being taken by the CES to become a multicultural organization; a mission statement; a list of CES values; and a discussion of the steps being taken to translate the CES's current vision of diversity into reality. The next section details the CES action plan for achieving the following goals: commitment to pluralism, environment for diversity and pluralism, work force diversity, audience and program diversity, full and influential participation, and equitable partnerships. A brief statement of CES future goals and a timeline are provided. A 14-item bibliography and list of task force members conclude the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Advisory Committees, Change Strategies, Cultural Pluralism

Cooper, Joanne; Kempner, Ken (1993). Lord of the Flies Community College: A Case Study of Organizational Disintegration, Review of Higher Education. An interpretive case study examines the organizational disintegration of a community college that experienced a sudden loss of leadership, focusing on how its culture both contributed to and prevented organizational chaos. It addresses how leaders can honor the culture and mission of educational organizations and simultaneously work to transform them. Descriptors: Case Studies, College Administration, Community Colleges, Higher Education

Nicklin, Julie L. (1991). As Enrollment in Continuing Education Booms, Some Fear Programs Will Be Used as Cash Cows, Chronicle of Higher Education. Both public and private higher education institutions say the recession is prompting increased enrollment in part-time training programs as adults prepare for new jobs. A danger is seen in institutions relegating continuing education to the role of surplus revenue generation. Greatest growth is in computer training, human-resource management, quality control. Descriptors: Career Change, Continuing Education, Economic Climate, Educational Finance

Bachmann, Halldor; McNabb, David E. (1989). The Export Economy of Iceland: What 1992 May Do to the "Little Fish" of Europe. Iceland is one of the six nations of Western Europe which are the last remnants of what was once the most powerful free trading association in the world: the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). EFTA was established in 1959 to foster free trade in industrial goods and to increase trade in agricultural and other products. In addition to the current six member nations (Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland), the association at one time also included the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Denmark. When the United Kingdom left EFTA for membership in the European Community (EC), EFTA lost its largest partner and any real power in negotiating with its rival, the EC. Despite this, the EFTA nations have maintained favorable trade relations with the EC. However, in 1992, the EC will take a major step toward final political and economic integration, possibly freezing out the EFTA. This paper examines the export economy of Iceland to see what impact further EC integration may have on that economy. The document includes a 19-item bibliography.   [More]  Descriptors: Business, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economics

Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH. (1985). The Great Depression. Coping with an Economic Disaster. Perspectives. This teaching unit, one of a series of eight, contains an overview, objectives, suggested teaching procedures, and expanded activities. In the three learning activities provided, students are presented with real situations that businesses faced during the Depression. They are asked to make decisions for each situation based on three different options. Possible outcomes for each of the options are then discussed. Each of the situations is supported by facsimiles of original documents of the period as well as period photographs. Situation 1 presents students with the dilemma of companies trying to save their businesses during the Depression. In situation 2, a company is faced with the problem of whether or not to lower prices in order to outsell its competitors. Students are given three different options. In situation 3, a business is faced with President Hoover's appeal for a shorter work week and sharing the work that is available. Descriptors: Business Cycles, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economics

Child Care Information Exchange (1990). Ideas for Directors. Discusses ideas for directors. Topics include the safety of child care; profit sharing in child care; and ways to get audited, fashion a philosophy, ask for money, draw out shy employees, and beat stress. Descriptors: Administrative Problems, Administrator Guides, Change Strategies, Child Safety

School Progress (1972). Organization Development: What's It All About?. This first part of a two part series describes the activity of the York County (Canada) Board of Education's Organization Development Unit, designed to provide assistance for individuals or groups so that they may improve their own effectiveness. Descriptors: Decision Making Skills, Interpersonal Competence, Organization, Organizational Change

Shubert, William H. (1989). Reconceptualizing and the Matter of Paradigms, Journal of Teacher Education. Two strands of curriculum inquiry reconceptualization are discussed; both are in contrast to the dominant empirical-analytical orientation to teacher education. Hermeneutic inquiry serves practical interests and proceeds by an interactive form of social organization. Critical inquiry serves emancipatory interests and is organized socially through empowerment and its consequences in action. Descriptors: Educational History, Educational Theories, Higher Education, Models

Hargreaves, Andy; Macmillan, Robert (1992). Balkanized Secondary Schools and the Malaise of Modernity. Findings of a study that examined teaching culture patterns in two Ontario secondary schools are presented in this paper, with attention given to the outcomes of "balkanization." In this form of the teachers' organizational culture, teachers work in smaller subgroups within the school community. The two schools were drawn from a study of 10 Ontario secondary schools undergoing a provincially imposed mandate to destream grade 9 by 1993. Findings indicate that in the conventional school, balkanization resulted in teacher isolation. In the new innovative school, balkanization was reconstructed in new forms, suggesting that balkanization remains a dominant feature even in nontraditional schools. A common restructuring problem was the failure to confront the fundamental issues of status, politics, and leadership. An implication is that balkanized schools are both symptoms and symbols of the "malaise of modernity." Unless restructuring addresses the assumptions of modernism and the structures that arise from it, balkanization will continue to pervade secondary schools with its deleterious consequences. Because the current system is unable to meet the needs of students in a postmodern society, a radical reconceptualization of secondary schools and curricula are necessary. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, High Schools, Organizational Change, Organizational Climate

Nicklin, Julie L. (1992). Private Giving to Colleges Rose by 4% in 1990-91, Chronicle of Higher Education. Private giving to colleges and universities increased 4 percent in 1990-91, less than the previous year's 10 percent. For some, fund raising was better than anticipated, but some generally successful fund raisers experienced declines. Private giving is more crucial than ever because public funds and tuition income are not increasing as in the past. Descriptors: Donors, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Fund Raising

Levinson, Richard M. (1989). The Faculty and Institutional Isomorphism, Academe. Campuses are less commonly communities of shared values and interests and are becoming complex bureaucracies governed from the top down by administrative elites, losing their collegial atmosphere and cultural distinctiveness. Power has been transferred from faculty to administration, borrowing corporate approaches at the expense of the academic culture. Descriptors: Administrative Organization, College Environment, College Faculty, Collegiality

Pascarella, Ernest E. (1985). Students' Affective Development within the College Environment, Journal of Higher Education. A study of the possible influence of a college's structure and organization on students' affective development suggests that students' academic and social integration tend to mediate the influences of structural characteristics. Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Attitude Change, College Administration, College Students

Polumbaum, Judy (1989). The Newspaper as Open System in Pursuit of Rational Norms. This paper discusses the implications of James D. Thompson's generalized model of the organization model for organizational- and institutional-level analysis of the newspaper. The paper focuses on the following points of consideration and how they apply to newspapers: (1) organizations are open systems operating under norms of rationality; (2) the role of rationality and certainty as efforts to seal off the organization's technical core; and (3) access to resources and the flow of these resources through the organizational system. The paper argues that the newspaper industry is increasingly inclined to pursue rational norms and that structural adjustment within the newspaper to facilitate coordination among interdependent parts is inevitable. The paper proposes that this model can also serve as a source of insight and theoretical perspective for studies focusing on occupational groups and individuals in the newspaper organization, or even on the news product itself. Forty-eight references are attached. Descriptors: Coordination, Institutional Characteristics, Media Research, Models

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