Bibliography: Climate Change (page 455 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Larry J. Reynolds, Jess E. House, John S. Morton, Linda McPheron, Stephen Stolp, Donn W. Gresso, David Hurst, Tom Loveless, Terrence E. Deal, and Lawrence W. Lezotte.

McPheron, Linda (1985). Econosense: A Common Sense Approach to the Study of Economics. This student activity book and teacher's guide address specific economic terms and concepts correlated to specific student learning objectives. The concepts presented are those essential to any student developing a basic understanding of economics. Each lesson follows a specific format with a basic core of information, comprehension questions, recall questions, questions for understanding of facts and principles, and analysis questions to extend the lesson. The table of contents includes lessons on: (1) "Scarcity"; (2) "Resources of Production"; (3) "Free Enterprise"; (4) "Types of Economic Systems"; (5) "The Basic Economic Questions"; (6) "Demand"; (7) "Supply"; and (8) "The Law of Supply and Demand." Descriptors: Consumer Education, Costs, Economic Change, Economic Climate

Smith, Stuart C.; Stolp, Stephen (1995). Transforming a School's Culture through Shared Vision, OSSC Report. Although, theoretically, an organizational vision can unite school-community members, it can also destroy organizational culture without the consensus of those members. This publication offers guidelines for creating a collaborative vision–one that gives all members the opportunity to help create the vision. Each school should choose a strategy that conforms to its own particular style of decision making and the level of maturity of its work culture. Some overall guidelines include the following: (1) involve all stakeholders; (2) follow your dreams; (3) inform your ideals with data–commit to continual learning; (4) assign tasks to work teams; (5) live the vision; (6) tap the power of symbols to communicate the vision; and (7) commit to an ongoing process. The principal should take time to thoroughly understand the school culture; facilitate the school vision (rather than push one's own); integrate the vision with external demands; and learn from failure. Descriptors: Administrator Role, Educational Change, Educational Cooperation, Elementary Secondary Education

Acker-Hocevar, Michele; And Others (1995). Developing an Educational Quality Benchmark System (EQBS): A Partnership in Restructuring. Thirteen school districts, a regional training network, and a university in Florida formed a partnership to develop support for the implementation of the statewide plan, "Blueprint 2000." Funded by the Florida Department of Education, the partnership used a quality and systems framework for helping the schools and districts in their restructuring efforts. This paper describes first-year outcomes of the project, one of which was the development of the Educational Quality Benchmark System (EQBS). The paper explores the equal importance of focusing on partnership processes and strategies that encourage ongoing identification, dialogue, and negotiation of basic epistemological and philosophical assumptions. These issues contribute to developing a shared vision of the product, processes, and outcomes for successful partnerships. Part 1 defines partnerships, the policy background of the alliance, the purpose of the partnership development, and the project design. Part 2 investigates different beliefs and philosophical assumptions about constructing partnerships around scientific rationalism and social constructivism, choices made both at the personal and organizational levels for the social construction of a partnership around dominator or partnership mental models of power. Factors that contribute to successful partnering include a shared vision, common values, communication structures, the missing trust factor, and power. Part 3 describes two models in the EQBS and their promise for restructuring schooling. It is contended that process is as important as the product. The failure to discern the magnitude of differing world views, the erroneous assumptions made concerning collaboration, the neglect to establish shared definitions and mental models, and the lack of communication structures contributed to misunderstandings among project partners. Transformative partnerships call for a new language that leaves the scientific rational model behind and incorporates some of the premises of humanism, quality, and systems thinking into its processes and work design. Four figures and two tables are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Benchmarking, College School Cooperation, Educational Quality, Elementary Secondary Education

Lezotte, Lawrence W. (1992). Creating the Total Quality Effective School. This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual framework is based on four common places–the teacher, the learner, the subject, and the setting–which interact with instructional processes to produce student learning outcomes. Tools for implementing the total quality effective school are described in part 3, which include the following: restructuring yesterday's school; changing the locus of decision making; empowering teachers; aligning curriculum and instruction; using information-processing technology; identifying the best practices; applying statistical process controls; using student performance measures; and assessing correlates of effective schools. Finally, the implementation process follows five stages: clarify and codify goals; establish student-performance standards; operationalize performance measures; analyze quality; and implement solutions in a quality way. (Contains 21 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Quality, Educational Theories, Effective Schools Research

Morton, John S. (1996). Advanced Placement Economics. Teacher Resource Manual. This book, in conjunction with the student activities books for macroeconomics and microeconomics, is designed for teaching the Advanced Placement Economics course. The book contains five units for the microeconomic portion and six units for the macroeconomic portion of the text. Along with the many activities are sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units for the microeconomic section are entitled: (1) "The Basic Economic Problem" (5 lessons); (2) "The Nature and Functions of Markets" (7 lessons); (3) "The Theory of the Firm" (8 lessons); (4) "Factor Markets" (5 lessons); and (5) "The Role of Government" (5 lessons). The units for the macroeconomic section are entitled: (1) "Basic Economic Concepts" (2 lessons); (2)"Measuring Economic Performance" (6 lessons); (3) "Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply: Fluctuations of Outputs and Prices" (5 lessons); (4) "Money, Monetary Policy, and Economic Stability" (4 lessons); (5) "Monetary and Fiscal Combinations: Economic Policy in the Real World" (4 lessons); and (6) "The United States in a Global Economy" (5 lessons). Descriptors: Advanced Placement, Capitalism, Decision Making, Economic Change

Morton, John S. (1996). Advanced Placement Economics. Microeconomics: Student Activities. This book is designed to help advanced placement students better understand microeconomic concepts through various activities. The book contains 5 units with 73 activities, sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units are entitled: (1) "The Basic Economic Problem"; (2) "The Nature and Functions of Markets"; (3) "The Theory of the Firm"; (4) "Factor Markets"; and (5) "The Role of Government." Descriptors: Advanced Placement, Capitalism, Decision Making, Economic Change

Cunningham, William G.; Gresso, Donn W. (1993). Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education. Changing the system of rules, roles, and relationships that determine how the components of school redesign are addressed is the challenge that confronts administrators who seek to create a culture of excellence in schools. This book examines the role of effective leadership in achieving significant educational improvement, arguing that culture, rather than structure, is the telling component in educational organizations. Data were obtained from the Danforth Foundation's School Administrators Fellowship Program, which documented the experiences of approximately 70 researchers, 40 superintendents, 80 principals, 30 school board members, and 60 teachers. The first two chapters discuss the context of American education and the culture of school systems that were successful in implementing excellence. The next nine chapters analyze the cultural attributes that encourage continuous improvement: the vertical team approach; vision, not criticism; collegiality; values and interest; quality information, and improvement; personal and professional development; employee empowerment; sustained innovation; and school-university partnership. The final chapter discusses the implications of a culture's supporting participative forms of organizational improvement. It ends with a discussion of the qualities necessary for a successful, culturally supported, site-based, participative program for American education. Four tables and three figures are included. Descriptors: Collegiality, Educational Change, Educational Environment, Educational Innovation

Snyder, Karolyn J.; And Others (1994). Organizational Development in Transition: The Schooling Perspective. This paper presents the initial findings of a comprehensive 28-school multi-site case study, which sought to identify patterns in schools that are changing bureaucratic work patterns to those found in quality-management systems. The schools are located in Florida, Virginia, Minnesota, and Louisiana; all are led by principals who are trainers in the Managing Productive Schools (MPS) training program. Data were derived from interviews with the 28 principals and from two surveys of all staff at 25 schools (N=1,235). Findings indicate that principals utilized visionary leadership, strategic planning processes, and a systems approach. They also sought new ways to gather information and focused on continual improvement and human resource development. In the highest performing schools, the four subscales of planning, staff development, program development, and assessment tended to function more interdependently. The more mature working cultures were characterized by participative decision making, clear communication, and support for teaching innovations and teacher teams. The less mature schools displayed autocratic decision making and fragmented communication. Teachers in less mature schools lacked financial support and recognition, felt isolated, and worked in a disciplinary context. A conclusion is that developing a common focus and shared vision of success for all students takes time. It requires innovative, nurturing leadership. Five tables and three figures are included. Contains 26 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Environment, Elementary Secondary Education, Institutional Environment

Bolman, Lee G.; Deal, Terrence E. (1991). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. Jossey-Bass Management Series, Social and Behavioral Science Series, and Higher and Adult Education Series. This book shows how educators can become more versatile managers and more artistic leaders. In part 1, chapter 1 shows why reframing–the use of multiple lenses–is vital to effective leadership and management. It introduces the four basic lenses for organizational analysis–the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames–and show how artistry and reframing can lead to both managerial freedom and leadership effectiveness. Chapter 2 illustrates how managers' everyday theories can lead to catastrophe. Part 2 explores the structural frame. Chapters 3 through 8 describe the basic issues of organization, offers guidelines for successful restructuring processes, and applies structural concepts to the workings of groups and teams. The political frame is discusses in part 4. Chapters 9 through 11 examine the power of political dynamics in organizational decision making, the basic skills of the constructive politician, and ways to shape the organizational playing field. The symbolic frame is explored in part 5. Chapters 12 through 14 analyze the power of symbol and culture in several diverse organizations, the central role of organizational culture in determining organizational effectiveness, the symbolic function of organizational structures and processes, and the creation of a team culture with a shared mission. In part 6, chapters 15 through 23 provide information on how to improve leadership practice. A total of 9 tables, 8 figures, and 8 exhibits are included. Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Interprofessional Relationship, Leadership

Loveless, Tom (1996). Why Aren't Computers Used More in Schools? Faculty Research Working Paper Series, R96-03. The personal computer is the latest educational technology to fall short of its original promise. Although United States public schools now possess 5.8 million computers, roughly one for every nine students, they are not widely used in classroom instruction. This paper argues that the most popular explanations for lack of computer use fix blame on recalcitrant bureaucracies and stubborn teachers. By enlisting technology in the cause of educational reform, computer advocates overlook some of the real obstacles to the use of computers in classrooms. These obstacles are rooted in organizational constraints of the school system and the essential nature of teachers' and students' work. The paper examines the world of teachers and students to uncover how their interactions limit the computer's impact on schooling and describes how these limitations are viewed by leading architects of public policy promoting educational technology, in particular a report published by the U.S. Congress's Office of Technology and Assessment in 1995. A conclusion is that computer advocates must separate their agenda from other reform agendas. The campaign to promote computer technology in the schools should stress three elements: (1) developing a strong technological infrastructure through investments in adequate school facilities; (2) using computers to make teachers' work easier and more efficient, not to redefine teaching; and (3) employing computers to increase student academic achievement, not for changing current ideas of valued knowledge. (Contains 54 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Computer Uses in Education, Educational Change, Educational Environment

House, Jess E. (1990). A Structure for the Practice of New Leadership Skills: Problem Solving Teams. The uncertain context of educational practice caused by reform proposals has created a dilemma for architects of educational-administration programs. If program designers do not respond positively to reform movements, they may fail to equip beginning administrators with the necessary knowledge and skills. On the other hand, if the preparation program is reformed but school reform is delayed, considerably modified, or fails to occur, the program will be subject to charges of irrelevancy and datedness. This paper outlines the new leadership skills critical not only to the implementation of reform recommendations but also to the success of both reforms and administrators. Administrator-education programs need to provide students with organizational structures within which the skills may be exercised. The paper advocates the use of problem-solving models and the intervention-assistance team model. It is recommended that educational-administration programs couple the new leadership skills to suitable organizational structures. Regardless of the organizational structures in which graduates find themselves as administrators, participation in a problem-solving team and learning problem-solving skills will help them in resolving fundamental educational issues. (Contains 16 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Educational Administration, Graduate Study, Higher Education

Corcoran, Thomas B. (1986). Improving the Quality of Work Life in Public Schools. This paper offers a traditional but often neglected view of schools as places of work. It argues that schools are best understood as places where people work and face problems similar to those encountered in other work organizations. Good schools are places where the quality and quantity of work are greater and the work is integrated more effectively. Since learning is the joint product of the work of staff and students, increasing learning requires more or better work by one or both groups. The productivity of workers is affected by the characteristics of work tasks and the work setting. Effective schools share with productive organizations the following characteristics–clear goals, a high task orientation, feedback on performance, high levels of employee discretion, adequate resources, and effective leadership. Achievement, recognition, professional autonomy, and participative decision making also affect employee productivity. In conclusion, understanding how more and better work can be done in the schools is essential to successful reform.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Climate

Furtwengler, Willis J.; Hurst, David (1992). Leadership for School Quality–Personal Challenge, the Missing Factor. Findings of a study that examined principals' leadership behaviors in implementing a systemic program for school reform and improvement are presented in this paper. The program, Reaching Success through Involvement (RSI), is an implementation strategy that involves comprehensive assessment and student leader participation. A survey was administered to 1,426 teachers from 30 schools participating in RSI to determine views of their principals' leadership. Findings confirmed the importance of the three factors of effective leadership that were identified in the literature: developing and maintaining structure, providing consideration, and developing an organizational culture. A new construct was also identified–personal challenge–which is the ability to empower others by creating opportunities for personal or professional growth. A conclusion is that administrators need to play a more active role in helping school community members find job satisfaction and meaning. Nine tables are included. The appendix contains a copy of the survey instrument. (Contains 53 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Effectiveness, Administrator Responsibility, Administrator Role, Educational Change

Johnsrud, Linda K. (1996). Maintaining Morale: A Guide to Assessing the Morale of Midlevel Administrators and Faculty. The purpose of this book is to explore ways for campuses to maintain morale during the tough times facing higher education in the 1990s. Its message is based on two assumptions: (1) the very process of assessing morale can enhance morale; and (2) there are ways to enhance morale that do not require large infusions of new dollars. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) the nature of morale and its importance (including a summary of research findings); (2) campus morale in the 1990s (noting reduced resources, public disaffection, and internal conflict); (3) the role of the institution in building morale (stressing the need for institutionally based assessment and the institutional commitment to act); (4) the administrative staff work life (a review of the literature on characteristics, activities, and concerns of administrative staff); (5) faculty work life (a review of faculty characteristics, issues, and special groups); (6) assessment of morale (describing the steps of a successful assessment from project leadership, to assessment design, to data analysis); (7) assessment issues (such as sampling, coding, data analysis and dissemination); (8) a case study of a 10-campus midlevel administrator morale assessment; (9) a case study of a university faculty morale assessment; and (10) use of the assessment data to develop recommendations and an action plan. Appendices contain sample letters and surveys. (Individual chapters contain references.) Descriptors: Case Studies, Change Strategies, College Administration, Colleges

Reynolds, Larry J. (1997). Successful Site-Based Management: A Practical Guide. Revised Edition. Many school districts and schools find that they have an incomplete understanding of site-based management (SBM). This guidebook provides a systemwide approach to site-based management, using SBM as a strategy for school improvement and increased student success rather than for managing the status quo. It identifies nine essential perspectives and skills required to support SBM; defines the new roles and responsibilities of central-office personnel, principals, and site teams; recommends a specific "how-to" approach of 25 steps to implement SBM; and provides worksheets and guidelines to apply to different settings. Fifty worksheets, 16 tables, and 8 figures are included. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education, Interprofessional Relationship, Leadership

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