Bibliography: Climate Change (page 456 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Philip Hallinger, Joseph Murphy, John C. Croft, Larry G. Daniel, Richard A. Schmuck, Rufus S. Swain, Johan Galtung, Philip J. Runkel, A. Lorri Manasse, and Washington Civil Service Commission.

Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. (1977). Executive Effectiveness and Organizational Team Building. Executive Personnel Technical Assistance Paper (EPTAP No. 5). This publication is fifth in a series of technical assistance papers intended to assist Federal agency personnel in the design and implementation of executive personnel management programs. This document focuses primarily upon team building, one of a variety of techniques of organization development designed to improve the way in which work is accomplished by individuals who have common work relationships and/or goals. The following information is included in this document: the basic concepts of team building; actual cases of federal applications of team building; potential problems in applying team building; and a description of some Civil Service Commission applied research in this area. An annotated bibliography is also provided. Descriptors: Case Studies, Change Strategies, Federal Programs, Helping Relationship

Daniel, Larry G. (1987). Teachers' Perceptions of the Emergence of a Middle School Culture: Studying How Culture Develops in Educational Settings. Organizational theorists have viewed organizations as "mini-societies" based upon commonly held cultural values and assumptions, which may serve to revolutionize organizational practices or to bring about new organization structures. The middle school is an example of an educational institution that has arisen as a result of a particular set of cultural values and assumptions. To test various theoretical assertions about organizational culture in educational institutions, this paper proposes conducting an empirical study of the middle school as the unit of analysis. The proposed investigation will define the ideal culture of the middle school as espoused by its advocates in the professional literature. Research instrumentation will be developed to determine the degree to which this ideal culture matches that found in selected middle schools. Two independent sample populations will be utilized. A pilot sample of 100 middle school teachers will generate reliability and validity data. The data gathered from a second sample of 200 middle school teachers will be applied to the two research instruments. The instruments will assess the degree of congruence between teachers' perceptions of the presence of various cultural elements in the middle schools in which they teach and the teachers' concept of the desirability of these factors in an ideal intermediate-level school. (A 64-item reference list is appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Comparative Analysis, Construct Validity, Educational Change

Swain, Rufus S. (1976). Faculty Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction and Management by Objectives for Results. A study of faculty job satisfaction and dissatisfaction was conducted at Wilson County Technical Institute subsequent to the adoption of a Management by Objectives and Results (MBO/R) organizational development plan. Three samples of faculty were surveyed in 1972, 1974, and 1976 using a measurement instrument based on the behavioral theories of Herzberg, and resultant data were analyzed to determine if any significant differences existed between the three sets of faculty responses. Significant differences were found on nine of the survey items. In all but one instance, decreases in the level of dissatisfaction of faculty were noted. Overall, faculty showed increased levels of job satisfaction relating to their supervisors, job responsibilities, and growth opportunities. While not statistically significant, improvements were indicated in such areas as achievement, policy and administration, recognition, and working conditions. No increases in dissatisfaction in any of the areas measured by the survey instrument were found. It was concluded that implementation of the Management by Objectives and Results program was not achieved at the expense of faculty satisfaction. Tabular data are included in the report.   [More]  Descriptors: College Faculty, Community Colleges, Job Satisfaction, Management by Objectives

Kritek, William J. (1976). The Design and Implementation of an Alternative High School. The analysis of the planning for an implementation of an alternative high school in a large urban school system is the focus of this study. Interview data are used. This investigation draws on, and compliments, the previous literature on implementation. While most of the earlier studies look at failures, this one is based on an instance of successful implementation. The study identifies four factors that may account for successful implementation, the intent being to partially account for that success and to provide some clues to what program administrators can do to make it more likely that new programs will get fair trials in the schools. The school was formed from the top-down providing legitimacy within the larger system and a measure of homogeneity. A large amount of lead time allows the faculty to develop personal ties and to share goals and values pertaining to the new school. Staff commitment to the school is fostered by mutual shaping by principal and teachers. Internal and external harmony is facilitated by stacking-the-deck. The strategy utilized by City Wide High School also has some negative features. The approach seems to reduce the chances for dissemination of the innovation within the school system. The large amount of lead time and the stacked deck, in particular, cannot be duplicated every time. Despite its shortcomings, City Wide High provides an alternative, and it is surviving. Descriptors: Educational Facilities Design, Educational Innovation, High Schools, Nontraditional Education

1977 (1977). An Assessment Center for Mid-Career and Middle Life. This symposium describes the development and initial use of an assessment center for men in mid-career and middle life. This assessment was designed for use in the Management Progress Study, the long-term research started 20 years ago using subjects who were men entering telephone company management. (AT and T). These same subjects were assessed eight years later, and are now (1977) being assessed again. Four of the symposium participants outline the dimensions of personality that are being studied, describe techniques whereby they are assessed, and report on some preliminary findings. Finally, the discussant evaluates the content of the symposium. Section one: (1) Introductory Remarks, (2) Dimensions and Group Techniques; (3) Individual Techniques; (4) Preliminary Projective Test Findings, (5) Predictions for Individuals, and (6) Comments by Discussant. An accompanying set of slides is not included. Descriptors: Administration, College Graduates, Conferences, Employee Attitudes

Manasse, A. Lorri (1983). Improving Conditions for Principal Effectiveness: Policy Implications of Research on Effective Principals. This paper reviews principal effectiveness research and suggests measures that might promote effective principalship. The first section discusses principals' behavior patterns and conditions bearing on their effectiveness. Topics examined include role ambiguity, goal setting behavior, leadership and initiative, management behaviors, instructional management, symbolic leadership, personal characteristics, leadership styles, and situational influences. The second section proposes that states and school districts facilitate principals effectiveness by (1) giving principals a greater role in educational improvement programs; (2) selecting principals according to precise and explicit competencies while recognizing the symbolic importance of selection, using behavioral measures derived from such programs as internships and assessment centers, and matching principals to schools; (3) providing more relevant preservice and inservice training; and (4) improving school districts' organization and management by articulating districtwide goals while preserving school autonomy, and by developing comprehensive evaluation systems. Incentive programs are proposed as one means of supporting effective principals.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Administrative Policy, Administrator Selection, Change Strategies

Croft, John C.; Barker, Catherine (1971). The Organizational Inventory Meeting: A Method of Gaining and Integrating Administrative Commitment. This paper reports on the history, rationale, procedures, and results of a 4-day meeting of 96 administrators, from two large school systems, who represented all levels of administration. The report sets forth participant attitudes toward specific parts of the 4-day event and indicates some of the outcomes of the meeting that were reflected in administrative practices during the ensuing school year. The paper concludes with a summary of participant reactions in terms of the dilemma between the necessity for (1) organizing any directing information to rationalize administrative functions and (2) obtaining and sharing complete and valid information critical to creative and innovative decisionmaking.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Administrators, Behavioral Sciences, Consolidated Schools

Blanton, Judith S. (1981). Women Consulting With Women: Feminist Ideology and Organizational Structure and Process. This model provides recommendations for possible interventions by women consultants working with feminist organizations. The issues, although discussed in this context, are considered to have implications for any consultant to a group which operates from a strong ideological basis. Eight characteristics of feminist organizations that are relevant to consultation are enumerated and discussed: (1) the organizations commitment to ideology may make entry difficult; (2) goals tend to be vague and grandiose and resources small; (3) emphasis focuses on egalitarian leadership and opposition to hierarchical structure; (4) the organization is attentive to interpersonal processes and accepting of emotional expression; (5) a sense of support/community is a major factor in joining the organization; (6) commitment for principles, not money, is the cause for involvement; (7) deviation from principles may be heretical and reaction toward deviants may be highly charged; and (8) ambivalence about relating to outside institutions exists. For each characteristic, implications for consultants are considered. An appended chart summarizes each point in an outline form.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Consultants, Consultation Programs, Females

Galtung, Johan (1980). The North/South Debate: Technology, Basic Human Needs and the New International Economic Order. Working Paper Number Twelve. 1980. This document contains two articles by Johan Galtung presented as papers at an international conference on the relationship of technology to the environment and human needs. The monograph is part of a series intended to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action toward a just world order. The first paper, "Towards a New International Technological Order," focuses on the negative consequences of western technology for the culture and social structure of developing nations. A major problem is that western technology carries with it a code of economic, social, cultural, and cognitive structures which are often not easily integrated into non-western nations. The second paper, "The New International Economic Order and the Basic Needs Approach," explores the political conflicts and compatibilities between the theory of the New International Economic Order (based on improving trade between developing and developed nations) and the Basic Needs approach (based on the fulfillment of basic needs at the individual level). The article concludes with the recommendation that people responsible for foreign policy in developing and developed nations and in international organizations should seek to combine elements of the two theories so that true human and social development take precedence over political objectives. Descriptors: Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Climate, Economic Development

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed. (1993). Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts. Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves" (Nona Prestine), examines the implications of the Coalition of Essential Schools in California. Chapter 3, "Hollibrook Accelerated Elementary School" (Jane McCarthy and Suzanne Still), surveys community and teacher attitudes at the Hollibrook school. Chapter 4, "Success for All" (Robert Slavin and others), offers case studies of urban schools. Chapter 5, "The Changing Role of the Principal in a School of Choice" (Philip Hallinger and Charles Hausman), inspects principals' leadership roles in restructuring. Chapter 6, "Coordinating School and District Development in Restructuring" (Michael Fullan), analyzes the roles of districts and schools. Chapter 7, "Restructuring Schools Through Empowerment" (Paula Short and John Greer), illustrates the importance of staff empowerment in reform. Chapter 8, "Restructuring Systemically for Students" (Jaci Webb, H. Dickson Corbett, and Bruce Wilson), explores the nature of student participation in restructuring. Chapter 9, "Professional Cultures and Reforming Schools" (Karen Louis and Jean King), documents the importance of structured time. Chapter 10, "Restructuring Schools" (Joseph Murphy and Philip Hallinger), offers informative lessons from current restructuring efforts. Descriptors: Administrator Role, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Leadership Styles

Schmuck, Richard A.; Runkel, Philip J. (1968). A Preliminary Manual for Organizational Training in Schools. The special concern of this manual is the improvement of working relationships among the members of a school's administration, faculty, and staff. Studies have indicated that for complex problems offering many alternatives, decisions produced by group interaction are usually far superior to decisions produced solely by individuals. To achieve consensual decision-making, organizational development must take effect through some formal training. The exercises in this manual provide training in the use of group resources, the clarification of roles, organizational participation, problem-solving, improving meetings, and planning organizational training. A related document is EA 002 558.   [More]  Descriptors: Decision Making, Educational Objectives, Experiments, Faculty

Escala, Miguel J. (1989). Two Decades of Planning in Latin American Universities: Trends and Perspectives. The paper provides a framework for identifying trends in planning in Latin American universities for the last 20 years. Identification of the planning trends is based on two main dimensions: the purpose of the relationship between universities and the external environment (organization-centered versus society-centered), and the degree by which the external environment imposes its will on the university (deterministic versus voluntaristic). Possible interactions between the two dimensions result in four main types under which university planning can be classified: deterministic society-centered; voluntaristic society-centers; deterministic organization-centered; and voluntaristic organization-centered. Based on this framework, the publications resulting from three conferences on university planning conducted by the Union of Latin American Universities were analyzed. One of the most predominant ideas about university planning was found to be the "social actor" or voluntaristic society-centered perspective. It is concluded that some new aspects in Latin American higher education could eventually force the predominant planning discourse into a more organization-centered one. Includes 21 references. Descriptors: College Planning, College Role, Developing Nations, Educational Practices

Carol, Lila N. (1975). The Need for Collaborative Investments in Effective Administrator Preparation Programs. Leadership/administrator training programs require a base that defines and explains clearly the variables that affect the structure and functioning of schools and the roles and behaviors of their leaders. Such programs need materials, support tools, and basic information on recruitment, selection, and preparation which a combination of research, practice, and evaluation indicate as the most profitable approaches to effective administrator performance.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Administrator Role, Decision Making, Educational Administration

Saint, Avice (1974). Learning at Work: Human Resources and Organizational Development. The book describes what must happen within an organization, both to its framework and its operations and to its instructional-learning process, if the organization and its employees are going to learn and adapt to their work tasks and roles. The major finding was that productive results occur primarily when training and learning are integrated with action needed to solve real organizational problems and accomplish work goals. The book discusses the organizational environment and the training-learning process as they interrelate in real life. Important distinctions between training, learning, and the training-learning process are made. Guidelines are provided for in-plant analysis and for comparisons of training practices that permit organizations to formulate improved strategies for learning. A method is offered for discriminating between productive and non-productive routes. The various chapters discuss the executive's role in the learning process, frameworks and patterns for learning, the manager's role, the relationship between work and learning, and related concepts. Five cases are studied. Descriptors: Adult Learning, Business, Governmental Structure, Human Resources

Johnston, Denis F. (1975). The Future of Work and Leisure. Earlier projections of labor supply and speculations about the impact on values and lifestyles on work, leisure, and work-leisure relationships are reassessed in light of current events. Previous projections were the basis for three alternative scenarios of possible work-leisure relationships. The first examined some of the implications of arguments developed by Charles Reich in "The Greening of America." The second was developed as an antithesis to the first and traced the implications of a renewed commitment to full employment and the preservation of the traditional meaning of work. The third depicted a blending of the values and life styles of the first two. Upon examination after four years time, the elements which induced a preference for the third alternative require modification based on the increasing economic activities of women, the aging of the baby-boom, and the potential resource scarcities and recession. The emerging trends appear to suggest a shift from the third scenario to the second. Projections over the next quarter century and their implications are discussed. Footnotes and tables are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Climate, Employed Women, Futures (of Society), Labor Market

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