Bibliography: Climate Change (page 460 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Welker Bishop, Robert A. Luke, Mark Meredith, Nicholas Galloro, Joseph P. Goldberg, John Richard Petry, Peter Watkins, Thomas D. Gougeon, William T. Moye, and Allan K. Beavis.

Gougeon, Thomas D. (1991). Principal Leadership: Communication in a Changing Educational Milieu. Issues in improving administrator communication in response to changing conditions within the school environment are examined in this paper. A communication model of leadership as social control is presented, based on the variables of personal orientation and motivation. A conclusion is that administrators must be prepared to understand the perspectives of different referent groups within the school–stakeholders, people of different cultures, and both sexes. The recommendation is made for administrator preparation programs to provide a minimal knowledge base in organizational, interpersonal, and intercultural communication. Three figures are included. (31 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Communication Skills, Educational Environment, Elementary Secondary Education

Galloro, Nicholas (1983). An Environmental Scan of Northern Alameda County. A study was conducted to provide an overview of the demographic and economic characteristics of the geographical area served by the Peralta Community College District and to provide population and economic projections up to the year 2000. Historical data from the Alameda County Planning Commission, census data, and projections from the Association of Bay Area Governments revealed: (1) Northern Alameda County (NAC) experienced a population decline of 7.2% between 1970 and 1980; (2) unemployment and poverty levels are higher in NAC than in much of the Bay Area; (3) while population growth is expected to remain relatively stable in NAC until the year 2000, Contra Costa County and Southern Alameda County are expected to grow rapidly; (4) in the next two decades, fewer adults between 18 and 30 years of age, and more adults over 30 are expected to live in NAC; (5) population increases are expected among Asians and Hispanics in NAC; and (6) by the year 2000, NAC will experience an increase in the percentage of single parent households; the creation of over 50,000 new jobs, primarily in the areas of services, retail and wholesale trade, finance, insurance, and real estate; and the increased labor force participation of women. Tables providing current and projected population and employment figures are provided throughout the report.   [More]  Descriptors: Age, Community Surveys, Demand Occupations, Demography

Bishop, Welker; Schuh, John H. (1982). The Business Environment for Housing Officers: Assumptions for the 1980's. In November 1979 the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) published a list of assumptions about the business environment within which college and university administrators would operate during the 1980's. The assumptions were divided into two categories: general external economic assumptions, and those that would have some impact on business officers in colleges and universities at all levels. This study examined the extent to which a selected group of 21 housing officers agreed or disagreed with the assumptions. The response rate was 100 percent due to followup efforts. Measures of central tendency were calculated for each item of the survey. Respondents agreed with all of the assumptions presented to them except one concerning federal aid.  They did not believe student aid would increase or that additional federal support would grow at a rate slightly under the inflation rate. Recommendations for housing practices derived from these results are: (1) devise ways to assure accountability to various constituencies to insure internal and external confidence; (2) develop management tools and automatic data processing techniques current with present technology; and (3) prepare to provide more services at lower cost. The lists of assumptions, data results, and a list of participants are appended. Descriptors: Accountability, Administrator Attitudes, College Administration, College Housing

Goldberg, Joseph P.; Moye, William T. (1985). The First Hundred Years of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 2235. This book describes various aspects of the historical development of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The first chapter, entitled "Origins," sketches the factors leading up to authorization of the BLS in June 1884. A chapter entitled "Carroll Wright: Setting the Course" discusses the views and contributions of the BLS's first commissioner. The next chapter covers the studies for economic and social reform that were undertaken during the administration of the bureau's second commissioner, Charles Neill. The BLS's history during the pre-World War I recession and war years, when Royal Meeker headed the bureau, are examined next. The fifth chapter is devoted to Ethelbert Stewart's term as commissioner of the BLS, which lasted from 1920 to 1932. The BLS's efforts to meet the emergency demands imposed on it first by the Great Depression and then by the New Deal agencies that were created to deal with the Depression are discussed against the framework of Isador Lubin's term as BLS commissioner. Ewan Clague's term as BLS commissioner (from 1946 to 1965) is discussed in terms of the expanding role that economic indicators began to play in the BLS. The eighth chapter summarizes the limited terms of the next three BLS commissioners, Arthur M. Ross, Geoffrey H. Moore, and Julian Shiskin, as well as the term of Janet L. Norwood, who was well into her second term as commissioner when the book was published. A brief discussion of the BLS's continuing mission, an appendix describing BLS publications, source notes for each chapter, and an index conclude the book.    [More]  Descriptors: Agency Role, Background, Economic Change, Economic Climate

Watkins, Peter (1992). Restructuring Australian Educational Administration: Japanese Management Strategies, Taylorisation, and Best Practices. In all forms of workplaces administrators have been exhorted to introduce what are perceived to be the "best practices" operating in the more successful economies. The education "industry" in Australia appears to be no different in this regard from other industries. Invariably, the "best practices" proposed for the Australian situation appear to originate from Japan. Japanese management practices are promulgated as having abandoned the old methods of Scientific Management, offering new ways of managing workplaces in general, and schools in particular. This paper seeks to examine this proposition critically through an examination of two proposals which have been advanced as bringing "best practices" into the administration of schools. The two areas which have been given currency recently are the introduction of individual salary packages for teachers and the formation of work teams in schools. The paper concludes that these seemingly new innovations may, in fact, not differ markedly from the principles advocated earlier this century by proponents of Scientific Management. Nevertheless, they may still provide some means toward more democratic administrative practices. (Contains 51 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Administrative Principles, Educational Administration, Educational Change

Goldman, Paul (1990). Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act. An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as follows: (1) inconsistency and lack of integration between proposals; (2) lack of incorporation of new ideas into schools' organizational structures; (3) simultaneous centralization and decentralization processes; (4) dysfunctional organizational effects of initial implementation; (5) conflict between content and process; (6) discrepancy between technical-rational and political goals; and (7) conflict between increased parent involvement and increased centralization. (31 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Centralization, Decentralization, Educational Change, Educational Innovation

Petry, John Richard (1986). A Study of Selected Administrative Problems of George Peabody College for Teachers, 1937-1945. Problems concerning finance, faculty, and educational programs faced by George Peabody College for Teachers during 1937-1945 are examined, along with the solutions. Attention is directed to: circumstances surrounding problem identification, the background of each problem, who had responsibility for formulating each solution, other individuals/groups who provided consultation, data utilized in arriving at solutions, the rationale for solutions, how successfully the solutions were implemented, and problems that remained unsolved. Despite financial depression and war, the administration preserved the image of Peabody as a college for teachers whose primary mission was to improve educational opportunities throughout the Southeast. Major financial problems were related to income, salaries, inadequate business procedures, and inadequately maintained buildings and grounds. The quality of faculty and the relationship of the faculty to the educational program were additional problems. Problems relating to the educational program included enrollment, instructional reorganization, and academic performance at the college. Appendices include: a list of administrators and trustees during 1937-1945, a bibliography, statements of income for each of the 9 years, and general education board grants to the college, 1909-1945. Descriptors: Change Strategies, College Administration, College Faculty, College Programs

Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo Roberts (1994). Empowering Teachers: What Successful Principals Do. This book is about exceptionally effective school principals and how they meet the challenges for leadership in a new era of educational reform. It describes the major elements of successful facilitative leadership from the perspectives of teachers. Drawn from a study of highly successful principals affiliated with Carl Glickman's League of Professional Schools, the study identified the characteristics of shared-governance principals that directly and indirectly contribute to teachers' sense of empowerment. Chapter 1 presents a brief overview of the professional literature on teacher empowerment and empowering leadership as well as a description of the study on which the book was based. Chapters 2 and 3 focus, respectively, on two fundamental principal strategies–building trust and developing enabling structures. The ways in which principals use basic supportive resources such as staff development to enhance teachers' instructional capabilities are examined in the fourth chapter. Chapter 5 discusses two strategies–extending autonomy and encouraging innovation. The effects of several personal characteristics of principals, including optimism, caring, honesty, friendliness, and enthusiasm, are highlighted in chapter 6. Chapter 7 focuses on the significance of reducing risk and threat to teachers. The benefits of rewarding teachers are examined in chapter 8, and chapter 9 discusses the importance of a problem-solving orientation. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of several guidelines. The final chapter presents a portrait of today' successful shared-governance principal and discusses possibilities for the future of facilitative-democratic leadership in schools. Research methods and recommended books are included in a resource section. Descriptors: Administrator Effectiveness, Administrator Responsibility, Administrator Role, Educational Change

Arredondo, Victor A. (1986). Some Problems Affecting Higher Education in Mexico. Major problems of higher education in Mexico are addressed in the context of the country's developmental stages, socioeconomic conditions, and demographics. Important factors in modern Mexican history include: population growth, public and private investment to stimulate socioeconomic activities in different regions of the country, and financial problems. In higher education, the number of students has increased dramatically; yet, the economic crisis has limited public resources for expanding educational services and has restrained the student's capability to continue schooling. Despite large increases in government subsidies to public universities, the level of funding does not compensate for inflation and for the developmental needs of institutions. To respond to the recently created groups of students and institutions, significant numbers of new teachers were hired; however, many were new graduates without teaching experience. Colleges and universities are mainly concentrated in the most urbanized areas of the country. The distribution of students by type of postsecondary institution and major is also considered. Eight figures and three tables are provided. Descriptors: College Faculty, College Students, Demography, Economic Climate

Indiana Historian (1993). Dreams and Despair: The Early Years of the Great Depression in Gary, Indiana. Based on official reports, newspapers, the memories of citizens, and historical studies, a description of Gary, Indiana during the Great Depression shows how many people in Gary were affected by the Depression. Gary began to grow rapidly beginning in 1906 with the organization of two steel companies. Black, European, and Mexican immigrants came to Gary to get jobs in the steel mills. A brief introduction about the effects of the Great Depression on the national economy precedes the specifics of Gary in the Depression. An illustration provides an example of the cycle of an economic depression. Gary responded through private relief agencies, business and industry, the Red Cross, and other work relief. The Mexican workers were among the first to be fired when mill production dropped. Anger and resentment built and a real movement began in Gary in 1932 to remove all Mexican immigrants to Mexico for repatriation. A timeline gives some historical context through use of local, state, and national events in the early years. Musical excerpts add another part of the cultural picture. A crossword puzzle using the Great Depression as a theme precedes selected resources for student reading, general sources, and special interest. Descriptors: Blacks, Community Change, Community Influence, Community Problems

Sapp, Mary M. (1987). Strategic Planning: What's It Really Like? AIR 1987 Annual Forum Paper. Experiences of the University of Miami's institutional research office, which produces three annual 5-year strategic plans, are reported. Attention is directed to official and unofficial functions of the institutional research office, lessons learned in the process, and suggestions for ways to minimize frustration and maximize usefulness. Institutions use strategic planning to set goals describing where the institutions wish to be strategically in relation to the competition and to develop action plans to position themselves there. Other features of strategic planning include: a focus on keeping in step with the changing environment; and consideration of rational and economic analysis, politics, and psychological interplay. Twelve lessons learned by the University of Miami in the last 4 years include: strategic planning is an art rather than a science; planning must be managed; commitment at the top must come early and continually; the plan is a "snapshot" of the planning process; strategic planners look outward as well as inward; and accountability is part of planning. Strategic planning has had a major impact on institutional research at the university; it has led to more research, which produces better planning. 9 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, College Environment, College Planning, Competition

Luke, Robert A. (1985). Thinking Back–Looking Forward. This paper traces the history of adult education through some 50 years. The study includes the early turn-of-the-century beginnings of adult education efforts, such as immigrant schools. However, it primarily traces the emergence and growth of the American Association for Adult Education (AAAE), the parallel and intertwining history of the Adult Education Department of the National Education Association, and their eventual merger. Also discussed is the National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education (NAPCAE) and its eventual merger with the Adult Education Association to form the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education. Some insights are offered into the purposes of adult education and its associations, some ideas as to how the organizations can serve their members better, and some hopes for the future. Descriptors: Adult Education, Educational History, Educational Philosophy, Mergers

Beavis, Allan K. (1992). The Self-Managing School: A Matter of Being and of Becoming. This paper explores possibilities within a paradigm that is an alternative to the reductionist, mechanistic paradigm of school-based management. The use of a "sporting team" concept (from a dynamic, holistic paradigm) rather than a "ship's crew" model (from a reductionist approach) is advocated. Using research on the governance of independent Australian schools, a prima facie case is developed to show that schools do not become self-managing, autonomous entities merely by the appointment of school councils. When viewed from a dynamic systems paradigm, schools are seen to be by nature self-managing and autonomous. The appointment of a school council enables a school to become self-managing at a qualitatively different, second-order level of functioning. The self-referential processes of a school, such as the stabilizing structures of expectations, are explored to help administrators and decision makers participate in those processes with understanding. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Governance, Institutional Autonomy

Beavis, Allan K. (1991). Heads of Mechanical or Living Schools? How We Attend to Our Daily Reality. This paper presents a holistic conceptualization of the school as an autonomous system. Two major scientific paradigms, reductionism and holism, are outlined and their impacts on educational administration are discussed. Findings of a study that investigated the participation of the governing bodies of independent schools in the schools' self-renewing processes are presented to illustrate the holistic approach to educational administration. The sample included five independent schools in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. Results indicate that the governing body participates reflexively as well as directly–an adaptation that allows the school's self-renewing processes to function. However, to place the two paradigms of reductionism and holism in opposition is to create a false dichotomy. Administrators must recognize when it is appropriate to operate within one paradigm or the other. Differences exist in how school heads view their schools–as machines to be maintained or as something with lives of their own. (Contains 16 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Holistic Approach, Institutional Autonomy

Meredith, Mark; And Others (1987). Differentiating Bona Fide Strategic Planning from Other Planning. The extent to which a college has been engaged in strategic planning was studied with a sample of 96 institutions which had been identified as using strategic planning in a 1985 study. Survey questions consisted of a mixture of: (1) activities proper and essential to strategic planning; and (2) approaches and views of strategic planning that have little to do with the concept. The premise was that the higher the number of strategic responses, the greater the extent to which an institution is engaged in what can be considered bona fide strategic planning. The average number of strategic responses was similar among institutional types, control, and size. Findings revealed that not all institutions that asserted that they were engaged in strategic planning were so engaged (i.e., perhaps only one-third were). The number of institutions conducting bona fide strategic planning appeared to be smaller than suggested in previous research. Strategic planning is defined, and factors differentiating strategic planning from traditional long-range planning are listed. Three guidelines for conducting strategic planning are offered. Descriptors: Change Strategies, College Administration, College Planning, Comparative Analysis

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