Bibliography: Climate Change (page 465 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ivan Charner, Robert E. Lamitie, Paul Goldman, E. Mark Hanson, Jack Nelson, Michael E. Brown, Jay W. Spechler, Devendra Bhagat, Warren Bennis, and Washington Department of Labor.

Bennis, Warren (1976). The Unconscious Conspiracy: Why Leaders Can't Lead. The author speaks from experience as president, since 1971, of the University of Cincinnati, the nation's second largest urban university; two previous administrative positions at the State University of New York at Buffalo; and the specialized field of the organizational development of large management systems. Eleven chapters, nine published previously as separate articles or speeches, address why leaders can't lead and suggest concrete, practical courses of action that those in authority can take to help solve the typical problems they encounter. Many of the examples pertain to the organizational structure of large, urban universities; however, business and especially the federal government are also included. Names and circumstances of the social revolution inflamed by the Vietnam war, Watergate, racial confrontations, and the recent push for equal rights for women are among the many issues discussed. The leader's function is defined as creating for his institution clear-cut and measurable goals based on advice from all elements of the community. This is viewed as possible only with the creation of an executive constellation of experts that distinguish between leadership and management and protect the leader from getting enmeshed in routine machinery. Descriptors: Administration, Adults, Bureaucracy, Change Strategies

Nash, Bernard A. (1997). Internationalizing the Business School–Responding to the Customer's Needs, Journal of Teaching in International Business. Efforts to internationalize the business curriculum in the United States must be supported by strong institutional commitment and implementation, and reflect the world business community and the country's multicultural business environment. Programs should conform to new accreditation standards and respond to client demand concerning emerging markets, international competition, and economic, social, political, and technological trends. Descriptors: Academic Standards, Accreditation (Institutions), Administrator Attitudes, Business Administration Education

Goldman, Paul; Conley, David T. (1996). Why Do Schools Respond Differentially to State School Reform Legislation?. Is it possible for state legislation designed to initiate systemic school reform to influence curriculum, instruction, and assessment at the classroom and building level? This paper presents findings of a longitudinal study of Oregon educators' reactions to school-reform legislation since it was passed in 1991. The Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century required elementary and secondary schools to develop and use a set of performance-based benchmarks that document educational progress from early adolescence to adulthood. Surveys of Oregon educators were conducted in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. One of the most interesting findings was that large differences existed between school districts and individual schools, both within and across school districts, that were not explained by demographic factors. The paper uses concepts from social-compliance theory and institutionalism to develop hypotheses about school restructuring at the building level. A working hypothesis is that social compliance, as operationalized in the form of normative behavior, is important to explain the differences in school-level responses to educational reform legislation. The institutional approach looks at how interorganizational relationships reinforce institutionalized organizational behavior. One table is included. Appendices contain the questionnaire scale items and statistical tables showing the reactions to school reform at the individual, school district, and building levels. (Contains 26 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Compliance (Psychology), Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Institutions

Kovaleva, T. V. (1995). Russia's College Students in a Time of Transition, Russian Education and Society. Surveys 600 Russian college students regarding their hopes for the future, economic and social advancement, and personal information. Argues that, although students generally are optimistic about their future, many fail to exhibit the self-discipline necessary to be successful. Skepticism about the government is endemic. Descriptors: College Students, Economic Climate, Educational Change, Educational Environment

Nelson, Jack; And Others (1974). Collegial Supervision: A Sub-Study of Organization Development in Multi-Unit Schools. This study attempts to evaluate the effects of special training for collegial supervision under the conditions of two types of organization development (OD) training within the multiunit school. The first type of OD intervention involved training for all the staff members of a multiunit school. The second was called group development (GD) and involved providing only the leadership group with the skills of OD. Different schools received different treatments. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training in collegial supervision in conjunction with consultation in OD and GD on a number of aspects of school life that included teacher satisfaction with working conditions and with colleagues, professional sharing, and communication adequacy. In addition, student attitudes toward specific subjects and classes were also analyzed. The research methodology is explained, including the hypotheses tested, the instruments used, and the method of analysis. The results of the study are summarized. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Educational Research, Elementary Education, Hypothesis Testing

Lytle, James H. (1992). Prospects for Reforming Urban Schools, Urban Education. Argues that an appropriate reform agenda for urban school districts would require reform characterized by the design of client-centered, authentic respectful organizations that build from the needs and interests of students, rather than the convenience of employers or conventions of traditional schooling. Descriptors: Black Students, Cultural Differences, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education

Goldman, Paul; Conley, David T. (1997). Persistence, Disillusionment, and Compliance in Educator Reactions to State School Reform. Educator reticence in some states has exerted a moderating effect on attempts to redesign public schooling. This paper presents findings of a longitudinal study that investigated the phenomenon of educator reaction to systemic state school-reform legislation. Oregon's landmark school-reform legislation, passed in 1991 and revised in 1995, serves as a test case. Data were obtained from a self-administered survey of educators from a total of 92 schools during the years 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The findings indicate that Oregon educators continue to have a relatively positive attitude toward school reform, but support appears to have declined in 1995-96. Educators became much less optimistic that the reforms would improve student outcomes. Individual and school demography did not predict educator responses. In addition, for the first time there was a gender gap: men's expectations for school reform declined while those of women remained constant. The most interesting finding was the very large differences between school districts and individual schools, both within and across school districts, in each of the four years. The paper offers a working hypothesis based on social-compliance theory: Social compliance, as operationalized in the form of normative behavior, is important to explain the differences in school-level responses to educational reform legislation. Two tables are included. Appendices contain the questionnaire scale items; a proposed instrument for further research; educator's comments; and statistical tables showing the reactions to school reform at the individual, school district, and building levels. (Contains 39 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Compliance (Psychology), Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Institutions

Hanson, E. Mark; Brown, Michael E. (1977). A Contingency View of Problem Solving in Schools: A Case Analysis. Patterns of problem-solving activity in one middle-class urban high school are examined and a problem solving model rooted in a conceptual framework of contingency theory is presented. Contingency theory stresses that as political, economic, and social conditions in an organization's environment become problematic, the internal structures of the organization must be modified to meet the changing demands. In the case analysis, schools are viewed as networks of interlacing cycles of events dependent upon student and teacher behavioral cycles and upon environmental needs. Researchers, who acted as participant observers, gathered data over six months. They cooperated with school staff in a participatory way, yet were also impartial, confidential onlookers and questioners. The contingency theory model identifies problem solving as a cyclical process with the following seven key stages: problem recognition, problem screening, problem distribution, decision making, decision implementation, feedback, and problem resolution. Findings of this study indicate that problem solving at high schools can be identified as a cyclical process with several key stages. At each stage forces converge on the problem which determine the course of events leading to the subsequent stage and finally lead to the ultimate resolution of the problem. The conclusion is that a similar cyclical process with similar stages would be found in other schools if a contingency theory perspective was used. Ten propositions on problem solving are offered for further testing in other settings.    [More]  Descriptors: Behavioral Science Research, Case Studies, Data Analysis, Educational Administration

Curtain, Richard (1996). Is Australia Locked into a Low Skills/Low Quality Cycle? Working Paper No. 10. Primary and secondary data sources confirm that Australia is trapped in a low-skills/low-quality cycle. Among the factors that have contributed to this cycle are the following: the relatively small average size and low technology base of Australian firms and the relatively short-term planning horizon and underperformance of many Australian enterprises (compared with the planning and performance of their counterparts in the United States and New Zealand). The theory of a low skills equilibrium, which states that all major stakeholders in skill formation contribute to maintaining the low skills equilibrium, provides a broader-based explanation for Australia's problems regarding worker skills and quality. Five key stakeholder groups influence the nature of the demand for quantity and quality of skills: enterprises; groups of enterprises; the government; employer associations; and individuals and training providers. Specific measures that each stakeholder group can take to move Australia into a high-skills cycle have been identified. Unfortunately, because of Australia's continuing high levels of unemployment and the poor performance of Australia's other economic sectors, many Australian employers and the Australian government will likely remain under pressure to continue following an ad hoc, low-skill/low-quality approach to forming intermediate skills in Australia's economy. (Contains 51 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Competence, Economic Climate, Education Work Relationship

Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Office of the American Workplace. (1993). High Performance Work Practices and Firm Performance. A literature survey established that a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between productivity and the following specific high performance work practices: employee involvement in decision making, compensation linked to firm or worker performance, and training. According to these studies, high performance work practices are most effective when implemented together as a system. Positive associations between high performance work practices and firms' long-term financial performance and between high performance work practices and higher wages and benefits paid to workers were documented in several studies, including a survey of 700 firms. Although interest in using new workplace practices appeared to be widespread, some firms and workers were still reluctant to adopt such practices. Most of that reluctance was found to stem from a lack of understanding of or information about high performance work systems. Further research about new workplace practices was called for. (An appendix contains summaries of 18 selected research projects dealing with high performance work practices and firm performance. Each summary includes the following: bibliographic citation, sample size/composition, type of data collected/analyzed, results, and comments.)   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Business Administration, Change Strategies, Employment Practices

Bhagat, Devendra; Williams, David D. (1987). Cultural Context and Development of Partnership. A university-public school partnership analysis reveals how the cultural context associated with existing institutions can both facilitate and impede the emergence of a new culture that those institutions attempt to create and often involves entire cultural reforms and organizational conversion. Brigham Young University and five surrounding school districts formed a partnership with the following objectives: (1) improve teacher and school administrator preparation programs; (2) use research findings in teaching and learning in the schools; (3) attract better qualified persons to the teaching profession; and (4) encourage collaborative inquiry by school and university personnel. Benevolent authoritarianism gave the formal partnership a structure; the informal cooperative networks have provided the spirit of collaboration. Two examples illustrate how conflicts between the host culture (authoritarianism and networks) and the ideals of the new culture could prevent progress if the organizational conversion process does not continue.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Authoritarianism, College School Cooperation, Cultural Awareness

Spechler, Jay W. (1996). Reasonable Accommodation: Profitable Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. This book, designed to assist business managers in their efforts to initiate or enhance existing programs for cost-effective disability management and achieve the spirit of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), presents case studies of over 30 companies who are successfully complying with the (ADA). The first two chapters of the book describe the role of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities and the ADA, and presents a 10-step process for implementing the ADA. Chapters 3 through 28 present company case studies that highlight the reasonable accommodations companies have made to include people with disabilities in their workforce. The profiles contain examples of training programs, policy statements, planning documents, job analysis formats, messages to employees, ADA implementation checklists, workplace assessments, and ergonomic evaluations. Chapters 29-36 describe case studies in which rehabilitation agencies have assisted companies at little or no cost. The capabilities of rehabilitation organizations in training persons with disabilities in needed business skills, training business people in disability management techniques, and providing on-site assistance to businesses are discussed. Chapter 37 focuses on managing AIDS in the workplace and chapter 38 highlights access technologies. Appendices include ADA and disability awareness information resources and a supervisor's guide to ADA. Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled), Adults, Attitudes toward Disabilities, Business Responsibility

Gold, Gerard G.; Charner, Ivan (1986). Higher Education Partnerships: Practices, Policies, and Problems. Postsecondary Education for a Changing Economy Project. Partnerships between postsecondary education institutions and employers, unions, professional associations, and other groups are discussed. The majority of examples are based on projects of the Education and the Economy Alliance, a program supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. Partnerships and joint, or collaborative, activities of colleges and these groups often involve research, economic development, and human resource development. Research partnerships may be basic or applied and may lead to new and profitable products. Economic development partnerships frequently concern community development, institutional development, and business development. Human resource development partnerships can be categorized as: entry-level preparation and orientation, technical skill development and maintenance, career transition preparation and skill enhancement, and career completion. The following basic factors involved in collaboration are considered: the organization's mission, the location within an organization of the partnership project, the level of leadership involvement with the project, and the depth of collaboration (i.e., how deeply felt are the values and practices of collaboration).   [More]  Descriptors: Career Change, Community Development, Cooperative Programs, Economic Change

Fairfield, Roy P., Ed. (1974). Humanizing the Workplace. A series of essays discussing ideas about humanizing work are presented in the document. Three major sections divide the essays, and each includes a preface with comments suggesting the central focus and questions with which the authors are concerned. The first section deals with the history, philosophy, and issues related to work and contains essays by Ivar Berg, George Strauss, Irving Bluestone, Franklin Wallick, Mitchell Fein, Marcus Raskin, Michael Maccoby, Alan Gartner, and Frank Riessman. The second section discusses specific illustrations, both exemplary and incredible, with essays by Robert Schrank, Bennett Kreman, Jack Russell, Myra A. Peabody, J. Davitt McAteer, M. H. Ross, Edward Walsh, and Walter Kleeman, Jr. The third section provides a look into the future, and the authors include Louise Kapp Howe, Stevanne Auerback-Fink, Richard J. Schonberger, Robert Schrank, and Howard B. Radest. The introduction, prefaces, and epilogue are written by Roy P. Fairfield. A list of the contributors is provided and includes biographical notes. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Environmental Influences, Environmental Research, Essays

Swanson, Austin D.; Lamitie, Robert E. (1971). Project 1990: Educational Planning at the Metropolitan Level. This paper describes a project designed to provide educational decisionmakers with projections of and forecasts about future metropolitan conditions and problems, and information about the implications of alternative ways of solving metropolitan problems. Project components included (1) population and economic projections and forecasts, (2) financial implications of these projections, (3) consideration of organizational alternatives, and (4) a plan for construction of racially integrated middle schools in Buffalo, New York, and the exploration of the possibilities of metropolitan educational parks.   [More]  Descriptors: Assessed Valuation, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economic Factors

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