Bibliography: Climate Change (page 467 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Wassily Leontief, Larry Davis Browning, Washington American Association for Higher Education, Carol H. Weiss, Lester R. Brown, Herbert J. Klausmeier, United Automobile International Union, Robert S. Fox, Craufurd D. Goodwin, and Howard C. Kramer.

Weiss, Carol H.; And Others (1991). Trouble in Paradise: Teacher Conflicts in Shared Decision Making. NCEL Occasional Paper No. 8. Drawing on interviews with 180 staff members from 45 public high schools in 15 states, this document examines the advantages and disadvantages of teacher participation in shared decision making. The settings of six high schools that had structured mechanisms for teacher participation in school decisions are described, and problems that emerged during shared decision making processes are presented: (1) conflicts between who participates and who does not; (2) conflicts among participants; and (3) internal conflicts–new and old ideas within the same individual. The problems caused by confusion regarding the locus of final decision authority are reviewed, and the need for teacher training in the content of issues faced by decision making bodies, in the processes of decision making, and in negotiation skills is explained. Next, the development of a school culture that supports participation and provides a sense of mutual respect and trust is discussed, and one school's collective management procedure is cited as an example. A final section discusses the potential of shared decision making given clear definition of staff members' roles and the organization's overall purpose. (20 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, High Schools, Interprofessional Relationship, Management Teams

Lovell, Hugh; Harter, Charlotte T. (1969). Instructor's Handbook to the Package Economics Course. This economics package course, designed for school districts wishing to give further in-service training to teachers of grades one through eight, offers seven original and three recent additional lessons. Supplementing teachers' guides, the objective of the handbook is to give teachers confidence in teaching economics and, further, enthusiasm about the subject which they will relay to their students. The non-credit course is organized into general sessions handled by an economics instructor for approximately two-thirds of the available classroom time, with the remainder of the time handled by experienced classroom teachers holding grade-level meetings for smaller groups of teachers. Seven sessions of two to three hours each deal with a variety of instructional techniques of interest to teachers, primarily lecturing, transparencies, films, problems, and quizzes. The handbook material suggests procedures for each of the grade level meetings, emphasizing discussion, and for general session meetings, offers short descriptions of topics, a list related instructional materials, and a brief description of how each session should be organized. The ten unit topics are on economics in general, producers, consumer economics, business and governments, specialization and trade, money and banking, economic growth and stability, jobs, income and unions, Oregon's public services and goods, and a review.   [More]  Descriptors: Banking, Business Cycles, Consumer Education, Economic Change

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. (1970). A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America. This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population trends, (4) national product, (5) agricultural, manufacturing, mining, and electric power production, (6) trade and investment, (7) gold and foreign exchange holding, (8) pupil enrollment and teacher staff, and (9) general notes. Frequent use is made of statistical tables, charts, and maps. Descriptors: Agricultural Production, Area Studies, Developing Nations, Economic Change

Browning, Larry Davis; Gilchrist, James Allen (1980). Political Leadership for Women: A Statement of the Case, An Education in Tactics. This paper reports on a study of the components of political leadership and emphasizes problems of women in attaining positions of political leadership. The authors use the term political leadership to describe the decision-making mechanism within organizations. First they review their survey of the personnel of a large organization. Respondents were asked how they thought about their organization in terms of issues including politics, satisfaction and loyalty, organizational flexibility, and perceptions of elitism. Responses of men and women were compared. The more women saw the organization as being political, the more likely they were to view it in a negative (elite) rather than positive (flexible) way and the less likely they were to be satisfied and loyal to it. Men saw the organization as political and were more positive and satisfied at higher levels within it. A review of literature revealed that political behavior is predominant at high levels of decision making within organizations and that informal friendship and information-sharing coalitions are vital to successful leaders. Women are poorly prepared for high level leadership positions because of their early socialization to be nurturing, role conflicts between masculine and feminine behaviors, and the tendency of male leaders to want to keep their power cliques homogeneous. The authors suggest that women seeking political leadership develop coalitions to generate support, operate opportunistically, disclose positions strategically, always have an option when negotiating, use humor, and be clear on willingness to take risks.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Comparative Analysis, Decision Making, Females

Goodwin, Craufurd D.; Nacht, Michael (1986). Decline and Renewal. Causes and Cures of Decay among Foreign-Trained Intellectuals and Professionals in the Third World. IEE Research Report Number Nine. Causes and prevention of the decline of professional competencies acquired in American institutions of higher education by foreign-trained, Third World scholars and professionals and soon lost upon their return to their home countries are addressed. The context of this problem is described for three countries that were selected as examples: Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey. Manifestations and characteristics of intellectual and professional "decay" are considered, including declining productivity and loss of morale. Causes of decay may be linked to inadequate compensation and support services, loss of facility in the use of English, the social and political context of developing countries, and economic recession. Efforts to maintain professional competencies (e.g., retraining and renewal) in these countries are identified, along with similar programs based in the United States and involving persons from the developing world. Descriptions are provided of programs in each country: Mexico (4), Indonesia (5), Turkey (3), and the United States (5). To prevent decay, 14 recommended policies and practices for the Third World and 8 recommendations for the developed world are presented. For the Third World, these suggestions include: information and advice, payment of competitive rates of return, rewards for accomplishment, sustained support over the economic cycle, and involvement in national development. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Higher Education

Harter, Charlotte T.; And Others (1980). Audiovisual Materials for Teaching Economics. Third Edition. The third edition of this catalog, which expands and revises earlier editions, annotates audiovisual items for economic education in kindergarten through college. The purpose of the catalog is to help teachers select sound economic materials for classroom use. A selective listing, the catalog cites over 700 items out of more than 1200 items reviewed. The four criteria used to select audiovisual materials were economic content and analysis, objectivity, interest and effectiveness as a teaching tool, and availability. The materials are organized by the following topical areas: scarcity and choice, the modified market economy of the United States and how it works, economic stability and growth, how economic principles and reasoning are applied to economic problems, and the world economy. Most of the items listed are films and filmstrips. Each annotation contains a description of the audiovisual indicating grade level and questions designed to help teacher and student understand and retain the information in the material being presented. A complete list of all producers and distributors is included. Title and grade level indexes are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Annotated Bibliographies, Audiovisual Aids, Business Cycles

International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI. (1976). Our Union Heritage: A Chronicle of Labor's Struggle for Social Justice. A series of articles comprises the history of labor activism from the 17th century to the present. Most of the information characterizes labor in the United States, although vignettes of labor activity in Canada and Europe are also included. The purpose of the document is to transmit to young workers an understanding of the hopes, bitterness, defeats, and triumphs of the people who participated in the labor movement. Events described include workers' rebellions in colonial Virginia, trials of union leaders in the 19th century, organization of the first labor movement in Philadelphia in the early 19th century, strikes, the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, and creation of major unions such as the IWW, AFL, and CIO. The descriptions of these events stress problems of child labor, labor politics, government opposition to labor organization, working conditions, working hours, labor/management relations, and collective bargaining. A final section presents a brief overview of labor history and concludes that unionism should be regarded as a noble cause dedicated to human dignity and brotherhood. Descriptors: Activism, Human Dignity, Justice, Labor Conditions

Willower, Donald J. (1990). School Reform and Schools as Organizations. The organizational characteristics of public schools, the impact of context on people in schools, and the consequences for school reform are examined. Based on the thesis that organizational characteristics of schools constrain most reform efforts, a suggestion is made for restructuring the teaching day, which promotes effective planning and provides a varied learning experience for students. A recommendation is made for consideration of school organizational context to understand the microsociological and micropolitical ramifications of reform. Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Educational Innovation, Elementary Secondary Education, Faculty Workload

American Association for Higher Education, Washington, DC. (1979). Perspectives on Leadership. Current Issues in Higher Education No. 1, 1979. Perspectives on leadership, the workplace, and changing values are presented in three papers. In "Changing the Shape of Work: Reform in Academe," Rosabeth Moss Kanter discusses the structure of academic career paths and ways to improve the quality of worklife for individuals employed in academe, applying theories she developed in her study on work in the corporate world. In "Changing Values: Implications for Major Social Institutions," Morton Darrow describes the challenges that changing values pose to all major institutions and would-be leaders. It is suggested that new leaders must be negotiators and integrators of diverse phenomena, understanding patterns of events and able to take charge in situations where their control may be limited. In "Leadership Needs of the 1980s,"  Michael Maccoby suggests that economic and social transformations demand a new leadership style. Personality and styles of leaders during different historic periods are sketched, covering the craftsman, the empire builder, the gamesman, and others. According to Maccoby, leaders should be able to analyze and reconstruct their organizations on the basis of social and economic realities, and with a real understanding of changing "national character." Descriptors: Administrator Qualifications, Administrator Responsibility, Business, College Administration

Brown, Lester R. (1978). The Global Economic Prospect: New Sources of Economic Stress. Worldwatch Paper 20. American economic analysts will better understand current economic trends if they investigate economic problems in light of the expanding global economy. Reasons for the failure of economists to explain the simultaneous existence of rapid inflation and high unemployment include preoccupation with economic indicators, short-term forecasts, and econometric models. Instead of concentrating on symptoms of economic maladies, economists should consider their underlying causes such as the role of biological systems in the economy. The four major biological systems–fisheries, forests, grasslands, and croplands–form the foundation of the global economic system. Economists' general lack of ecological awareness has caused them to ignore the economic impact of practices such as overgrazing, deforestation, rapid population growth, conversion of grasslands into croplands, encroachment of cities and deserts on croplands, depletion of nonrenewable energy sources, unemployment, capital scarcity, diminishing returns, and rising real costs accompanied by inflationary pressures. Many current economic problems are rooted in the deteriorating relationship between the world's four billion inhabitants and the earth's natural systems and resources. Economists should realize that many economic problems stem from the dependence of the economic system upon the natural environment.   [More]  Descriptors: Agricultural Production, Attitude Change, Biological Influences, Capitalism

Leontief, Wassily; Duchin, Faye (1984). The Impacts of Automation on Employment, 1963-2000. Final Report. A study examined the actual and projected impact of automation on employment between 1963 and 2000. Utilizing a fully integrated, dynamic input-output model that was designed for this study, the researchers analyzed a large body of quantitative information from diverse, especially technical, sources. This effort resulted in the development of a detailed model of the probable effects of automation on the demand for labor services in 53 occupations. According to this model, the intensive use of automation over the next 20 years will make it possible to conserve about 10 percent of the labor that would have been required to produce the same bills of goods in the absence of increased automation. The impact of automation is specific to different types of work and will involve a significant increase in professionals as a proportion of the labor force and a steep decline in the relative number of clerical workers. Because the direct displacement of production workers by specific items of automated equipment will, at least in the initial stages, be offset by increased investment demand for capital goods, production workers can be expected to maintain their share of the labor force.   [More]  Descriptors: Automation, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economic Factors

Lippitt, Ronald O.; Fox, Robert S. (1973). Identifying, Documenting, Evaluating, and Sharing Innovative Classroom Practices. A survey of teaching practices and a face-to-face sharing institute were designed for an experiment to identify innovative practices, to legitimize the sharing of them, and to develop criteria for evaluating the relevance and importance of particular inventions. This experiment was part of a project involving a state organization of teachers and teams of teachers in local school systems in which the former provided an organizing link and the latter acted as researchers and disseminators. A questionnaire discovered new educational practices which were evaluated by a rating scale especially developed for the project. Documentary descriptions of each nominated practice were placed in a catalogue and distributed to participating schools. The teachers' response to the catalogue was measured by a postcard questionnaire. A forcefield analysis of the factors supporting and hindering active innovation resulted in a sharing institute focused on the resistance to diffusion. The objectives, design, operation plans, and program outline of the institute are followed by staff observations. Three nominated teaching practices, the rating scale, a documentary description from the catalogue, and the forcefield analysis are reproduced.   [More]  Descriptors: Adoption (Ideas), Diffusion, Documentation, Educational Change

Klausmeier, Herbert J. (1985). A Process Guide for School Improvement. Program Report No. 85-3. This guide is intended for use in locally conducted inservice programs and university courses. It is designed to aid each school of a district and the district office itself in starting and maintaining a self-improvement capability by maintaining or improving (1) student achievement, interest, behavior, and citizenship; (2) effective instructional, advising, and administrative practices; (3) job satisfaction and staff morale; and (4) the capacity for organizational renewal through staff development. Chapter 1 discusses the overall implementation of basic improvement processes. Chapter 2 focuses on administering school improvement at both the school and district level. Chapter 3 is a discussion of arranging the total educational program for students, while chapter 4 focuses on improving instruction and chapter 5 covers the process of updating the curriculum. Chapter 6 discusses student decision-making arrangements, self-discipline, and citizenship. Chapter 7 concerns the constructive use of evaluative information in developing improvement strategies. Chapter 8 focuses on updating patterns of instructional grouping of students and teachers, while chapter 9 discusses ways to personalize educational advising. Chapter 10 provides ideas for strengthening home-school-community relations. Chapter 11 covers the role of locally conducted research in guiding school improvement, and chapter 12 provides successful examples for implementing improvement practices in elementary schools. Four appendixes provide correlated instructional materials and three sets of simulations for elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Educational Administration, Educational Improvement, Elementary Secondary Education

Spicer, Brian, Ed.; And Others (1974). Production and Space. The Global System, Level 3. Part of a geography series which stresses understanding of the environment through mastery of specific skills and concepts, the secondary level textbook investigates the interrelationships between humans and the goods they produce. The book is presented in 26 chapters organized around five main themes: (1) agricultural production, (2) manufacturing production, (3) difficulties that men of different backgrounds experience in living and producing together, (4) the relationship between living standard and health, and (5) interactions between men and specific environments. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor objectives are listed in the introduction, and a final chapter suggests questions and activities for measuring student mastery of the objectives. Chapter format generally includes background information, illustrations, maps, graphs, and discussion questions. Some chapters also include learning activities such as library research, map work, essay assignments, and model construction. The major learning activities, however, are presented in the final chapter in which students are directed to apply analytic skills developed throughout the global system series to hypothetical farm and factory data. Specifically, students are expected to construct a map and systems diagram of the farm and factory from information presented, explain the layout of each site, and determine whether the uses to which men are putting the site are suitable in terms of suggested variables. Descriptors: Agriculture, Developing Nations, Economic Change, Economic Climate

Kramer, Howard C. (1986). Advising Systems: The Use of Rites and Ceremonials. The use of rites and ceremonials to influence the practice of advising in the college setting is considered, with attention to rites of passage, enhancement, renewal, and integration. During the rite of passage, the new status of advisor is assumed and may be formally signified by distribution of the advisor handbook and informal socials with experienced advisors and staff. Rites of enhancement mark an improvement in a person's social identity and personal power. In the advising context rites of enhancement occur when there is public recognition during meetings of advisors for handling difficult "cases," or when awards of excellent service are distributed. Programs sponsored by the institution to improve the advising program may be identified as rites of renewal, while an example of a rite of integration is the advising fair where different disciplines have information booths and make presentations about majors. A hypothetical example is presented of a college's attempt to use rites in a proactive and planned manner to foster advising practice. It is suggested that feedback to the advisor inherent in rites and ceremonials may help promote feelings of accomplishment. Possible negative outcomes of rites and ceremonials are also addressed, along with relationships between organizational and individual behavior in advising. Descriptors: Academic Advising, Assembly Programs, Ceremonies, Change Strategies

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