Bibliography: Climate Change (page 469 of 472)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Washington Congress of the U.S, James Jacobs, James L. Medoff, New York Catalyst, Robin Shannon, Michael Waggoner, Louis Emmerij, Ben L. Kyer, Alfred P. Wilson, and Urs E. Gattiker.

Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E. (1995). Monetary Policy Rules, Supply Shocks, and the Price-Level Elasticity of Aggregate Demand: A Graphical Examination, Journal of Economic Education. Utilizes two-dimensional price and output graphs to demonstrate the way that the price-level elasticity of aggregate demand affects alternative monetary policy rules designed to cope with random aggregate supply shocks. Includes graphs illustrating price-level, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), nominal GDP, and nominal money supply targeting. Descriptors: Business Cycles, Capitalism, Competition, Consumer Economics

Gattiker, Urs E. (1989). Technological Adoption and Organizational Adaptation: Developing a Model for Human Resource Management in an International Business Environment. A model of technological training has two dimensions: level of cultural stability and employee's level of cognitive ability. Each dimension has two variables. The variables of cultural stability are (1) technological adoption and organizational adaptation and (2) structure of work and work processes. For cognitive ability, the variables are training and skills. This model suggests that successful technology adoption and organizational adaptation require a fit between culture and cognitive ability by the employees. Such a fit will enable the organization to offer the necessary training where it is needed most, thereby allowing employees to acquire the necessary skills to perform well with the new technology. The legal environment will affect the interrelationship between technology adoption and organizational adaptation profoundly. Culture may be an important factor since labor laws may differ across provinces and most certainly between countries. Thus, action strategies employed by a company must differ due to local labor laws. In less-developed countries, firms may introduce technology and automatically lay off redundant workers in large numbers. In Canada, if technology adoption results in more than 50 layoffs within any 4-week period, the group termination falls under the Canada Labour Code and a joint committee consisting of displaced workers and management must be established to determine severance pay, retraining support, and any other compensation. The practical implication for managers is the need for an integrated training strategy considering cultural factors. A firm must provide three types of training: job-specific training; training in company cultural habits and action strategies; and training for understanding and using the organizational culture to everyone's advantage. Sixty-two references are included and nine tables are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Automation, Corporate Education, Cultural Influences, Employment Qualifications

Heim, John M.; Wilson, Alfred P. (1987). Situational Factors Contributing to Administrator Turnover in Small Kansas School Districts and High Schools. A study of turnover among high school superintendents and principals in small Kansas school districts found differences in demographic and organizational characteristics, performance measures, and administrators' perceptions in districts with high and low turnover rates. Data obtained from 72 administrator interviews and educational directories and state salary/financial reports discovered differences in workload and support personnel, number of attendance centers, teacher relations, salaries, community location, school board stability, and wealth per pupil. Qualities of low turnover schools/districts included presence of assistant superintendents, administrators' perceptions of their salaries as above average, good community location, more centralization, administrators' positive attitude toward workload and satisfaction with others in workplace, better teacher-administrator relations, and teachers perceived by administrators as better paid than teachers in other districts. Qualities of high turnover schools/districts included superintendents serving simultaneously as principals, reelection of school board president after previous defeat, more attendance centers, more problems with teacher relations, more wealth per pupil, more isolated communities, past administrator incompetence, good training ground for a better job. The study compares results with other reported research and points out implications for small school districts seeking to reduce administrative turnover and for administrators seeking employment.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrative Change, Administrator Attitudes, Administrator Characteristics, Boards of Education

Jacobs, James (1983). Small Business and Economic Development in Macomb County. This study examined the economic development role of small businesses in Macomb County, Michigan, in order to identify those businesses which are most significant in terms of their contribution to economic development and, which therefore, would warrant public support for their retention and growth. Using these criteria, the study isolated the role played by the tool and die, machine making, and fabricated metal parts industries. In addition, the study considered the significance of administrative and auxiliary businesses, the coordinating and research arms of manufacturing industries in Macomb County. While the latest economic census of Macomb County private businesses revealed that these areas have suffered a relative deline over the past 7 years, considerable amounts of wages are still earned in these industries. Although service sector employment (a low-wage industry) has grown, the manufacturing area still accounts for a majority of the wages earned in Macomb County. The study concluded, therefore, that the economic development of Macomb County would best be served by retaining and expanding these high-wage industries. The study suggested several ways of implementing this goal: first, the establishment of a county-wide technology center that can conduct research and aid in developing the necessary machinery to enable the metal-bending industries to remain competitive; second, the establishment of an import-export center that can aid these industries in penetrating foreign markets; and third, the application of job training funds to the needs of individuals within these industries. The study anticipates a key role for Macomb Community College in working with government, business, labor, and the community to rejuvenate and retain the metal-bending industries.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Community Development, Economic Change, Economic Climate

Waggoner, Michael, Ed.; And Others (1984). Academic Renewal: Advancing Higher Education toward the Nineties. A Collection of Essays Based upon Presentations at the Conference on Academic Renewal Held at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, June 1983). New directions for higher education are discussed in 13 essays based on a 1983 conference on academic renewal. Six topics are covered: the challenge of renewal, organizational strategies for renewal, environmental contexts for renewal, curriculum developments, faculty renewal, and academic leadership. Titles and authors include: "Observations on Academic Renewal" (Billy E. Frye); "Perspectives on the Future of Higher Education: Opportunities for Optimism" (Howard R. Bowen); "Decline, New Demands, and Quality: An Institutional Agenda for Renewal" (Marvin W. Peterson); "Using External Information in Planning" (Richard B. Heydinger); "Academic Renewal and Public Policy" (Richard L. Alfred, Murray Jackson); "Disaggregating the Relationships between Government and Higher Education" (James L. Miller, Jr.); "Higher Education Linkages with Private Sector Business and Industry" (Harold McAninch); "Assessing Program Quality" (Robert T. Blackburn); "Liberating Education: Four Principles for the Curriculum" (John Nichols, Zelda Gamson); "The Faculty as a Renewable Resource" (Wilbert J. McKeachie); "Renewing Faculty Quality" (R. Blackburn); "Colleges and Universities as Workplaces" (Ann E. Austin, Z. Gamson); and "Academic Leadership: Some Personal Reflections" (Ernest L. Boyer). Descriptors: Accountability, College Administration, College Faculty, College Planning

Shannon, Robin (1974). Inequality in the Distribution of Personal Income. The major purpose of this paper are to survey the published data on the size distribution of personal income in a number of countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to point out the shortcomings of currently collected data, and to propose improvements. An important conclusion concerning the first purpose is that in recent years there has been no clear and unambiguous movement toward greater income equality in most countries studied. Another conclusion of this paper is that summary measures, such as the Gini coefficient, must be interpreted with great care since different summary measures of the same data may show opposing tendencies. It is clear that most countries have very poor data for policy-relevant analysis. If this situation is to be remedied, it will be necessary not only to make a much bigger effort of data collection, but to broaden the coverage of the data to correspond more closely with meaningful concepts of economic welfare. Whatever set of policies is adopted in the future will require efficient statistical monitoring to assess their impact and efficiency. At present, this cannot be said to exist in any country. The main areas for improvement revolve around the following issues: definition of income, income unit, dis-aggregation, time period of analysis, the redistributive impact of the public sector, and methods of investigation. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economic Development

Vandenberghe, Roland (1987). School Improvement from a European Perspective. Three research questions are addressed in this paper: (1) What does school improvement mean in relation to the context of a research project? (2) Given particular developments in European society and the nature of primary research data, what should schools be like in the year 2001? (3) What steps are being taken in research and development to answer these questions? Because such fundamental questions have no easy answers, this discussion is limited to reflections based on educational research and development experiences in various Western European countries. Section 2 of the report analyzes characteristics of large-scale innovation projects in education. The context of school improvement is discussed, and the meaning of school improvement is interpreted. To provide an illustration to the second research question, the report's third section explores specific tasks facing schools in 2001 by referring to Belgium's comprehensive Renewed Primary School project. The processes involved in study of the large-scale innovation project are deliberated. The final section focuses on research and development questions that should be considered in the next decade. Methodological approaches to emerging complex research issues include design of long-term follow-up studies and use of multiple data sources. Twenty references conclude the report.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Innovation, Educational Policy, Educational Trends, Elementary Secondary Education

Catalyst, New York, NY. (1981). Corporations and Two-Career Families: Directions for the Future. A Report Based on the Findings of Two National Surveys. Two surveys were conducted to further increase understanding of two-career families and the corporations that employ them. First, questionnaires sent to Fortune 1300 corporations probed for awareness on the part of corporations of the problems of two-career couples and attempted to elicit evidence of new policy planning. A total of 374 companies participated in the corporate survey by answering four-page questionnaires. Additionally, two-career couples were recruited for participation in a survey through announcements in selected magazines and through a nationally syndicated United Press International column. Of the more than 2,000 couples who volunteered, 815 qualified for the couples survey. (To qualify for participation the wife had to have a career in the business community.) Wives and husbands answered virtually identical sets of questions, each of which was six pages in length. Results of the surveys and implications for corporations and couples are discussed. Tables of data and descriptions of aspects of research methodology employed in the surveys are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Day Care, Demography, Employed Women

Emmerij, Louis (1981). National Strategies for Coping with Unemployment: An International Perspective. Occasional Paper No. 69. This paper considers the economics of employment and education in industralized countries, particularly European countries. The paper covers six main topics. The first part deals with the present European employment situation, using figures mainly from Holland; the second part is an economic outlook for the 1980s; in the third, the employment and economic situations are combined, and the resulting employment prospects are considered. Discussed in part 4 are economic policies to cope with unemployment. Labor market policies are the subject of the fifth part, while the last section looks at social and cultural policies and what education can do within an overall packet to cope with the unemployment problem. A question-and-answer section follows. The paper maintains that actual unemployment is worse than the figures would indicate because of the rate of disability retirement; suggestions are made for policies of re-education, economic restructuring, and stimulation of international demand.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Economic Development

Medoff, James L. (1982). The Importance of Employer-Sponsored Job-Related Training. Employer-sponsored, job-related training as a means of satisfying labor demands has potentially profound implications for the operation of the nation's economic system. The alternatives of bidding for desired workers and downgrading job requirements tend to increase inflation and lessen productivity. Since the end of the 1960's, the ability of employers to attract and retain workers at a given point in the business cycle has declined substantially. This apparently sharp increase in labor market imbalance (a worsening match between the skills possessed by labor force members and the skills required in jobs) has not been met by an increase in the per employee amount of employer-sponsored (nominally paid for) job-related training. There is strong evidence that employers have turned to wage bidding to attract needed employees. Employers' decisions concerning low investment in formal training have been guided by profit maximization. While this may be good private decision making, it may lead to undesirable social outcomes–inflation and lower productivity. (Twelve tables are found in the body of the paper and in an appendix.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Vocational Education, Economic Change, Economic Climate, Employer Attitudes

Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC. (1983). America's Competitive Challenge: The Need for a National Response. A Report to the President of the United States from the Business-Higher Education Forum. [and] The Report in Brief. [and Related News Releases]. Public and private initiatives designed to enhance U.S. competitiveness were suggested to the President of the United States by the Business-Higher Education Forum, based on a 1-year research and study effort. The Forum's findings include: the U.S. economy is lagging behind its own past performance and the gains of other nations; economic vitality depends upon improving the United States's international competitive position; and the consequences of declining competitiveness include unemployment, fewer public services, restricted opportunities, and reactive public policies. Factors contributing to these difficulties are identified, and recommendations for presidential action are offered. Suggestions for the proposed National Commission on Industrial Competitiveness are offered concerning: trade, capital investment, private sector initiatives, human resources, and technological innovation. The Forum also suggested initiatives for businesses and colleges, as well as ways that these institutions can improve their own operating procedures. The full report is presented, including recommendations from previous studies, along with a separately printed executive summary of the full report and related news releases. Descriptors: Business Cycles, Change Strategies, College Role, Economic Climate

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center. (1985). Issues and Images: New Yorkers during the Thirties. A Teaching Packet of Historical Documents. Derived from an exhibit produced cooperatively by the New York State Archives and the New York State Museum for the Franklin D. Roosevelt Centennial, and designed to provide secondary students with first-hand exposure to New York during the Great Depression, this packet contains a teacher's guide and 22 facsimile documents, including historic photographs, diary entries, advertisements, letters and newspaper clippings, telegrams, court testimonies, and transcriptions from oral history interviews. Through study of these documents, students see the Depression from the vantage point of those who lived through it. The guide provides a framework for using the documents in junior and senior high school history, English, and humanities classes. It begins with an essay on conditions in New York during the 1930's. The essay is followed by a bibliography of general readings on the period and more detailed readings on the specific topic areas included in the packet. Guidelines for using the documents in the classroom are then provided. The guidelines are organized in three sections corresponding to the documents' three major subject themes: (1) the impact of economic conditions in rural and urban areas; (2) the effect of changing social conditions on rural and urban family life; and (3) the response of the state government to the economic upheaval. Each of the three sections identifies historical themes illustrated by the documents, notes educational concepts and skills, and suggests questions about the documents and learning activities for using them. Descriptors: Basic Skills, Concept Teaching, Economic Climate, Economic Factors

Berg, Donna Lee (1978). Teachers' Centres: A Report Based on the Literature. This report focuses on the British concept of teachers' centers. Emphasis has been placed on the literature that analyzes the effect of political, social, economic, and cultural factors on the development of centers. Part 1 of the report discusses British teachers' centers in some detail. Part 2 presents an overview of United States centers set up as a result of American educators' enthusiastic acceptance of the British concept. This section attempts to highlight the differences in implementation of the basic philosophy within a totally different educational environment. In part 3, British and American centers are jointly discussed in relation to certain aspects that involve either common concerns or demonstrate the differences in attitude between the two nations concerning evaluation and research, curriculum development, inservice training, and the future of centers. Ontario's limited involvement with teachers' centers is discussed in part 3 and a brief commentary is made on the province's educational policy, particularly as it relates to curriculum. Descriptors: Bibliographies, Comparative Analysis, Curriculum Development, Educational Change

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor. (1987). Hearing on the Impact of Deregulation on the American Workers. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Miami, Florida). This congressional report includes testimony pertaining to the impact of the Reagan administration's policy of increased deregulation on American workers. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact that deregulation has had on specific occupations, industries (including plant closings), wage structures, and organized labor. The following organizations were represented at the hearings: the Transport Workers Union; the Eastern Airline Pilots of the Air Line Pilots Association; the International Association of Machinists; the Florida Consumers Federation; the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees; the Center for Labor Research and Studies; the Florida Building and Construction Trades Council; and the Air Line Pilots Association. A former flight attendant and a former airline mechanic also testified.   [More]  Descriptors: Air Transportation, Building Trades, Construction Industry, Economic Change

Byrne, Eileen M. (1974). Planning and Educational Inequality: A Study of the Rationale of Resource-Allocation. The research project documented in this book is about the allocation of educational resources for secondary education in Great Britain. It re-examines some current assumptions about the allocation of resources in educational administration and in schools. The research attempts to test how far specific or dynamic demand affects the release and the allocation of resources; and how far, conversely, constant lack or limitation of resources artifically depress demands. In practice, the findings of the inquiry highlight on the one hand, acute inequality of educational opportunities creating a cycle of deprivation for some groups of pupils in some areas. On the other hand, evidence also emerges of dedicated work by staffs and heads in local education authorities, faced with the task of post-war educational reconstructions. The book's chapters focus on: allocation of curricular resources, organization and political background of the local education authorities, finance providing the resources, central and local controls, secondary education in Lincoln, in Nottingham, and in Northumberland (1945-65), teaching staff, the schools survey and curricular resources, and school leavers. Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Delivery Systems, Economic Change, Economic Climate

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