Bibliography: Ecology (page 617 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Rebecca Dillard, Ivan Dmitriyevich Zverev, New York National Audubon Society, Jim Grove, Carolyn Tucker, Outdoor Communicator, Peter S. Thacher, Dean S. Rugg, WARREN C. GILFILLAN, and Roderick Nash.

Thacher, Peter S. (1991). International Agreements and Cooperation in Environmental Conservation and Resource Management, Evaluation Review. Considerations regarding stabilizing the greenhouse effect (global warming) emphasize the difficulties in launching a comprehensive plan to deal with aspects of global change. Experience gained in dealing with atmospheric issues will help in developing a process that links management and research in solving global problems. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Climate, Conflict Resolution, Conservation (Environment)


Holm, Amy E. (1987). Tropical Forests. Global Issues Education Packet. Tropical forests provide the world with many products and an incredible diversity of plant and animal life. These forests also provide watershed areas, soil control, climate regulation, and winter homes for migrating birds from North America. It is believed that about 40% of tropical forests have already been destroyed in the last 20-30 years, prompted by social and economic pressures. To curtail this trend, attitudinal and institutional changes in the industrialized nations of the world must be made to preserve the economic and environmental security of the world. Education can create an awareness of this issue from which decisions can be formulated and appropriate actions taken. This document contains six activities for intermediate and middle school students including: (1)"Tropical Pursuit"; (2) "Tropical is Topical"; (3) "Follow the Yellow Brick Road"; (4) "Monkey See, Monkey Do"; (5) "A Tropical Tail"; and (6) "May the Forests be With You." Each activity provides a brief description, a concept statement, objectives, background information, a list of relevant subject areas and skills, a list of materials, and the procedures used to conduct the activity. Descriptors: Biological Sciences, Ecological Factors, Ecology, Educational Games

Tucker, Carolyn; Dillard, Rebecca (1986). Water Education Curricula: A Compendium. This compendium of water education curricula describes a variety of instructional materials stressing California water conservation which are available upon request. The individual materials are suggested for use by the following grade levels: K-3; 2-4; 3-6; 6-9; 9-12; and K-12. Partial segments of each of the 23 brochures are illustrated along with a description of the publication. Also included are suggestions for the use of each brochure in the classroom. Topics include: "The Guzzler Gang"; "Water Fun"; "Water Play"; "The Water Cycle"; "Travelling with Ricki the Rambunctious Raindrop"; "Water Is Your Best Friend"; "Water Is Peter's Best Friend"; "Peter's Magical Water Journey"; "Admiral Splash"; "The California Water Works and Why It Does"; "The Tardy Twins Meet Polluto";"Water for Ursa"; "A Journey down the Colorado River Aqueduct"; "Be Water-Wise"; "The Official Captain Hydro Water Conservation Workbook"; "Water Lifelines for Los Angeles"; "The Further Adventures of Captain Hydro"; "The California Water Map Program"; "The Delta Dilemma"; "Project Water Science"; "A Sense of Water"; "Regional Teacher's Guide Supplement"; and "The Story of Drinking Water." Also included are a referencing of these materials to the concepts related to water education, as listed in the "Science Framework Addendum for California Public Schools," 1984. A 50-item bibliography of additional resources is provided. Descriptors: Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Design, Curriculum Guides

Outdoor Communicator (1984). Acid Rain Students Do Original Research. At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Ecology, Educational Experiments, Environmental Education

Nash, Roderick (1978). Nature in World Development: Patterns in the Preservation of Scenic and Outdoor Recreation Resources. Working Papers. This report reviews the problems of protecting nature in a heavily industrialized democracy such as the United States. Factors contributing to the establishment of protected areas in the United States are traced from the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 to the present. Arguments in defense of wilderness areas consider nature as: (1) a reservoir of normal ecological processes, (2) a sustainer of biological diversity, (3) a formative influence on the national character, (4) a church, (5) a guardian of mental health, and (6) an educational asset in developing environmental responsibility. Diverse agencies, programs, and efforts exist at all levels. The National Park Service, the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the National Wilderness Preservation System function on the federal level. Coastal zone management and land use laws protect natural areas on the state level, city and county parks serve as protected areas on local levels, and private organizations such as the Sierra Club also contribute to wilderness preservation. Problems arise from the conflict between economic development and nature preservation, and the popularity of nature areas which leads to their destruction. Programs in Japan, Australia, New Zealand, East Africa, Europe, the Soviet Union, and Canada are also described.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Change, Comparative Analysis, Conservation (Environment), Ecology


Zverev, Ivan Dmitriyevich (1984). Youth and the Natural Environment: A Survey in the USSR, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Education. The results of a study that examined the knowledge and attitudes of Russian preschool, elementary, and secondary students toward ecological matters are discussed. The overwhelming majority displayed a high degree of social maturity in their assessment of the importance of the relationship between man and nature. Descriptors: Comparative Education, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Educational Needs

Stehney, Virginia A. (1976). Environmental Curiosity Sampler 2: For Use with Environmental Study Areas in Illinois. The Sampler provides ideas and lists resources for an interdisciplinary study of environment in terms of a person's immediate surroundings, distant sites, and facilities. Although it was developed for use by parents, teachers, youth group leaders, students, and interested individuals in the state of Illinois, many of the activities would be appropriate in any state. As a more inclusive second edition of the 1974 Sampler, this handbook encompasses all of Illinois and regards every place as a potential study area. Activities stimulate awareness of growing plants around the home, neighborhood garbage disposal and recycling processes, land use throughout the state, and problems of erosion and water purification. State and federal environmental areas in Illinois are listed and described, which include fish hatcheries, tree farms, hiking trails, and wildlife refuges. The Sampler identifies reading material, community resources, and special activities for each topic. Appendices contain a glossary, a list of organizations and courses concerned with ecological issues, a reader reaction sheet, publishers' directory, bibliographies, and an index.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Discovery Learning, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education

Rugg, Dean S. (1991). Making Introductory Cultural Geography More Relevant, Journal of Geography. Presents a project making an introductory class in cultural geography more relevant. Describes how students select and evaluate three articles about geography and write about them. Suggests that students are better able to appreciate and retain a geographical perspective in a comparative world context by applying concepts of their choice to real situations. Descriptors: Concept Teaching, Cultural Context, Ecology, Environment


Fairwell, Kay, Ed. (1979). The OBIS Story. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies. Active participation in a variety of outdoor activities by small groups of youngsters aged 10 to 15 is the focus of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project, designed to provide the firsthand outdoor experience necessary for understanding biological relationships. OBIS provides community-sponsored youth organizations and schools with 100 learning activities for use at outdoor sites, such as lawns, playgrounds, city lots, and parks, common in a man-managed environment. The OBIS Trial Edition, developed and tested over 6 years, consists of 4 Sets of 24 varied activities and a Trail Module of 4 related activities, all emphasizing biological interactions and environmental interrelationships. Their short duration and easy-to-follow format, including notes on preparation, all necessary biological information, inexpensive or homemade equipment, and follow-up, make OBIS activities suitable for both experienced and inexperienced outdoor education leaders. Because each activity is based on a single principle, leaders need not follow a rigid sequence of activities to ensure concept comprehension, although several activities may be sequenced in a program to suit the leader's needs or for integrated study of a specific subject. All trial activities are listed and briefly explained. The OBIS system also includes a training Primer, a Newsletter, and Resource Centers throughout the country.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Biology, Ecology, Educational Objectives


Bezold, Clement and Olson, Robert (1983). The Future of Florida: Four Scenarios for the Sunshine State, Futurist. Looking at four different scenarios for Florida's future–continued growth, new federalism, depression/hurricane, and third wave–can help clarify goals for the future. Each scenario's effect on such key areas as energy use, transportation, water, and education is considered. Descriptors: Decision Making, Ecology, Educational Planning, Emergency Programs

Grove, Jim (1984). Environmental Biology: A Field Experience, Journal of College Science Teaching. Recounts experiences of an environmental biology class, highlighting the eight-day field trip that is the culmination of the course. Describes activities during the bus trip, a two-day canoe trip, and field work at the Ozark Underground Laboratory and Blanchard Springs Caverns. Also discusses the field journal and final examination. Descriptors: Biology, College Science, Ecology, Environmental Education

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 616 of 627)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kay Fairwell, Sonja Shearer, Warren C. Gilfillan, Arie R. Korporaal, Puxico Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, Donald R. Hammerman, Arthur B. Sacks, Manhattan. Extension Service. Kansas State Univ, Willis R. M. Schott, and Craig B. Davis.

Palma, Alfred J. (1978). Site Guide to Sunken Meadow State Park. Revised. Sunken Meadow State Park provides a year round three-fold ecosystem (marine beach, salt marsh, and wooded upland) of 1,266 acres for Suffolk County (NY) teachers and students to use as a site for outdoor education activities. While teachers can rely on the support of the Outdoor Learning Laboratories' staff for aid in emergencies, for clarifying unforeseeable contingencies, and for providing materials and equipment, teachers are expected to be self-sufficient leaders when bringing students to the Park. Therefore, teachers are required to complete a 30-hour summer inservice instruction program prior to bringing their students to the Park for a day-long class trip during the year. Successful completion of inservice training and implementation of a day-use program qualifies a teacher for participation in week-long residential camp experiences. In addition to detailing the teacher training program, this guide provides teachers with: background information on the formation of the Park and its present day flora and fauna; maps and directions for reaching the Park; safety, first aid, and emergency procedures; conservation practices; and descriptions of available instructional and audio-visual materials, including procedures for their care and storage. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.; Davis, Craig B., Ed. (1979). Current Issues V: The Yearbook of Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Selected Papers from the Eighth Annual Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education. These proceedings are divided into two major sections. Section I contains papers based on original research and thought and are intended as examples of products of rigorous scholarship. This section is subdivided into three subsections covering the future, the present, and the past. Papers appearing in this section were reviewed by at least two researchers selected for their expertise relative to the article being examined. Twelve papers appear in this section. The second section includes descriptive or journalistic papers and program reviews. Papers for this section are intended to be useful and of interest to environmental educators. In all, 16 papers appear in Section II. A section of guidelines for authors concludes the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum, Ecology

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others (1978). Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance. Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary of terms and words provided for each area is the basis of many of the learning activities which include charts, matching, drawing, labeling, completing study sheets, and games (bingo, crossword puzzles, word searches, word scrambles). The activities specifically address: the water cycle; crayfish; pH; dissolved oxygen; trees; tree measuring; ecosystems; and land use planning. A Teacher's Guide accompanies the workbook. Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver. (1976). Environmental Law II. Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment discusses water law in Colorado, water resources, and federally reserved water rights; (2) A Panorama of Environmental Laws presents an overview of laws dealing with radiation, noise, historical preservation, pesticides, and wildlife; (3) Federal Freedom of Information Act asks, "Who must disclose what, and to whom?" and "What information qualifies as confidential?"; (4) NEPA: Introduction and Current Developments discusses the National Environmental Policy Act; (5) Development on Federal Lands presents information on overlapping state and federal agencies; (6) Land Use Control in Colorado–Impact on Community Development surveys state legislation involving land use; (7) Air Quality Control discusses regulation of real estate development; (8) National Flood Insurance Program summarizes current developments in insurance coverage regulations; and (9) Water Quality Control discusses regulation of real estate development and water quality standards.   [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Community Development, Conference Reports, Ecology

Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service. (). Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program. The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information, material lists, pre- and post-activity suggestions, and directions for the activity itself, which usually centers around a field trip. Subjects include exploring the environment through touch, smell, sound, and sight; environmental observation and photography; litter; solid waste disposal; and lichens. The final "key" is a lesson for teachers on writing teaching units for outdoor education. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Copeland, Arthur R.; Hammerman, Donald R., Ed. (1976). British Environmental Education: A Perspective. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 21. British environmental education differs somewhat from that of the United States. In the U.S. "environmental education" refers to the teaching of a set of concepts by which one might learn to appreciate, conserve and protect the natural environment. In Great Britain many of the same objectives and procedures of the U.S. system are employed, but they are accomplished through more varied means. Conservation is still of importance, but the impact is stressed through more direct involvement of the individual through both formal activities and recreational experiences where pleasure and appreciation are part of the expected results. Environmental education in Great Britain was influenced by two issues: (1) the work of environmentalists in their efforts to clean up the material and aesthetical spoilage left by the industrial revolution and (2) the emergence of the environment as a teaching tool that could take children out of the classroom into the reality of a first-hand experience. Environmental education in England takes many forms from natural studies in the class to week-long trips to Field Study Centers where skills such as camping or sailing are taught. The final section of this paper describes three examples of environmental activities in which the author participated. These included a town survey, compass activities, and a trip to a county environmental center where children may visit from one day to a week to learn specific activities and apply lessons learned in class. Descriptors: Aesthetic Education, Comparative Analysis, Conservation Education, Definitions

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI. (1974). Environmental Education Guide; Language Arts 7-8. Written for use with junior high school students, this handbook links natural ecological issues with language arts instruction. It contains a series of lesson plans, each offering a number of suggested learning activities for use both in and out of class. The lessons are built around 12 major environmental concepts that form a framework for each subject area. In addition, each lesson offers subject area integration, multidisciplinary activities, cognitive and affective behavioral objectives, and suggested reference and resource materials for both the teacher and student. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Ecology, English Curriculum, English Instruction

Shearer, Sonja; And Others (1980). Gloucester Marine Biology Unit. Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of marine life, interpretation of weather conditions, and use of topographical maps. General goals are for students to realize the importance of science in their own lives, to work successfully with their classmates, and to gain respect for the environment and all its habitants. Activities include collecting and identifying plant and animal life, using cameras and microscopes to obtain data, observing tidal changes and weather conditions (over a 40-hour period), exploring the harbor in dories, and visiting a local museum. Materials for students are summaries of important characteristics of salt marsh and tidal pool ecosystems, and discussion questions guiding interpretation of student observations. Forms are provided for specimen identification and for students' narrative evaluations of the field trip. A teacher evaluation cites successful outcomes of the trip. Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Course Evaluation, Course Objectives, Curriculum Guides

Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, Puxico, MO. (). Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Environmental Education Program: Teacher's Handbook. A wide diversity of interesting plant and animal life can be observed and studied at Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, the last sizeable example of the swampland which once covered millions of acres in the area. Many of the species here, such as the swamp rabbit, are rare elsewhere in the state. The refuge's archaeological and historical resources are equally diverse. Mingo's original purpose was to provide a resting and wintering area for waterfowl. Today educational experiences are also provided on the refuge. School groups are offered two types of activities–self-guided tours and planned field activities. For the tours, refuge personnel provide a short orientation talk to the class and go over the route to be taken with the teacher. For the planned field activities, lesson plans are provided. Refuge staff will sometimes be able to assist in conducting these activities. This handbook includes examples of the lesson plans. Topics covered are: observation and perception, habitat investigation (energy cycle), basic measuring, rural life and the Depression, compass use, contour mapping, creative writing and nature, art and nature, cemetery study, land use study (pioneer homestead), aquatic biology, transect study, soils and erosion, observing and classifying trees, and creative communication using nature as a stimulus. Descriptors: Art, Biological Sciences, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Development

Korporaal, Arie R., Ed. (1975). Nature's Classroom. A Guide for the Los Angeles County Outdoor School. Promoting understandings in outdoor science and conservation is the primary goal of the Los Angeles County Outdoor School as presented in this guide to its five-day resident program for elementary school pupils. The purpose of various program components is briefly described, including hikes, cabin living, campfires, conservation projects, crafts, dining hall, evaluation and planning, flag ceremony, folk dance and folk singing, library and museum visits, and specialists. A sample daily schedule gives approximate times for a typical day. The 1973-74 curriculum is outlined under four major concepts: (1) an ecosystem consists of natural communities of plants and animals interrelated and interacting with their physical environment, (2) man's attitudes and way of life create an ecological impact on the environment; man's survival depends on his ability to minimize this impact, (3) the earth is in constant motion producing regular predictable changes in the environment to which man adapts, (4) outdoor school is a minicommunity in which each pupil can participate as a citizen and creative person. Under each, activities to accomplish objectives are given, with both outdoor school and classroom learning opportunities, many of which provide for multicultural experiences. The appendix has a glossary in both English and Spanish and site information on the outdoor school. Descriptors: Activities, Concept Formation, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum

Brown, Eric R. (1975). Reading Improvement Through Marine Environment Exploration. The Reading Improvement Through Marine Environment Exploration Project involved five classes of fifth grade students from three schools in Staten Island, New York. It was funded under the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Title I. The classes were selected by principals and teachers from the respective schools on the basis of students' educational deficiencies related to reading. A total of 105 students participated in this two month program. It involved utilization of the resources of the Gateway National Park. The rationale for the program was that content related reading skills could be improved through actual investigative manipulative activities in a natural environment. It was predicted that this kind of activity would be supportive of reading and writing exercises. The program concentrated on three selected skills for reading in the content area: (1) fact, fiction, and opinion, (2) classification, and (3) construction and interpretation of graphs. Activities designed for students included: mapping the area they were working in, collecting material from the beach, studying wild life, and planting and raising flora indigenous to the shore area. An analysis of the subtest scores for each of the three SRA Reading Diagnostic "Probe" Tests concerned with fact and opinion, classification, and graphs, indicated significant differences between pre and post measures, even within the short time span and three times a week schedule of the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Content Area Reading, Ecology, Elementary Education, Environmental Education

Schott, Willis R. M., Ed. (1973). Lindbergh School District Outdoor Education '73/'74. Since 1968, Lindbergh School District fifth graders have participated in a five day resident camp program designed to foster an appreciation for nature, to promote self-reliance while developing emotional maturity, and to provide a communal living experience with peers and teachers. The handbook is a composite of teachers', administrators', and students' efforts toward developing this Outdoor Education Program. Every phase of the camp program and its organization is detailed, including a description of the school district, a history of the Outdoor Education Program, camp rules, counselor application procedures and responsibilities, health services, camp library resources, camp schedules, camper responsibilities, flag ceremonies, weather observation procedures, get acquainted activities, songs, and pre-trip orientation plans. Curriculum materials focus on tree identification, soils and geology, pond life, insect study, animal study, fishing, archery, and art, and include lesson plans, activities, work sheets, and appropriate student hand outs. Student and teacher evaluation forms are presented along with samples of certificates, checklists, and charts. Descriptors: Activities, Animal Behavior, Art, Camping

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others (1978). Teacher's Guide for Students Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance. To be used by sixth grade teachers in preparing their classes for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School Program, the guide to the Student Preparation Workbook provides general information, descriptions, game materials, and answers to exercises and puzzles. The guide is divided into four resource areas: soil, water, plants, and animals. Each section consists of introductory information, a glossary, and various learning activities and games. Although the material is not organized into complex lesson plans, there are suggestions for use of the activities. Some general environmental material is included. Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary Education

Meyer, Jeanie Keeny; Levine, Daniel U. (1977). Identification of Neighborhood Type and Its Utility in Prediction of Achievement. Just as urban ecologists have shown that social behavior such as delinquency is related to spatial patterns, educational achievement should logically be related to socio-spatial patterns. Accordingly, the hypothesis of the present study is that school neighborhoods can be ecologically grouped so as to enhance the prediction of achievement. The elementary schools of three large public school districts in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area constitute the population in this study. The unit of analysis used in this study is the individual elementary school as outlined by its attendance area. Two working hypotheses were formulated: (1) school neighborhoods can be grouped into meaningful homogeneous types; and (2) including neighborhood type will significantly improve prediction of academic achievement over and above socioeconomic variables which are known to account for a substantial proportion of the variation in achievement among students in the public schools. Fifteen typologies of neighborhoods were produced by manipulating various combinations of factor and cluster analyses. It was found that neighborhood type as delineated by several typological approaches did significantly improve the prediction of academic achievement over and above variance attributable to the best socioeconomic predictors. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cluster Analysis, Community Characteristics, Ecology

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others (1976). The OBIS Trail Module. Trial Version. Designed to allow youngsters aged 10 to 15 to experience the challenges and problems environmental investigators might face making an environmental impact study, the trial version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trail Module focuses on aspects of construction-related environment problems. Four activities are included in the Module: (1) "Trail Impact Study", in which participants plan a safe, convenient footpath that will have minimal impact on the site; (2) "Cardiac Hill", in which participants use pulse rates as a guide to finding the maximum steepness for a trail along which hikers can walk comfortably; (3) "Hold a Hill", an activity to determine how steep a trail can be before excessive erosion occurs; and (4) "Trail Construction", finding the best construction technique for the site. The individual, water-proof folio for each activity includes activity explanation, preparation, materials, action, discussion, and follow up. Other materials are an overview of the Module and OBIS, and an equipment card indicating how to make inexpensive metric materials for measuring slope.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Biology, Construction (Process), Ecology

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 615 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Nancy Landes, Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Ohio State Univ, Elaine L. Douma, Lynton K. Caldwell, Paula A. Sinanoglu, John W. Butzow, Robert S. McNamara, Gaye Leigh Green, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education. Ohio State Dept. of Education, and W. M. Laetsch.

McNamara, Robert S. (1985). The Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture (1st, Washington, DC, November 1, 1985). The economic crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa threatens to condemn an entire continent to human misery unless stronger action is taken to control population growth, reverse ecological devastation, eliminate distortions in domestic economic policies, and increase external development finance. Substantial increases in financial assistance to Africa are needed, including a raise in bilateral aid of at least 30 percent per year, increased assistance of the World Bank, further debt rescheduling, and establishment of special research programs to increase the world's understanding of African ecological issues. Outside assistance, however, must be matched by internal efforts, including efforts to change a number of disturbing domestic political policies, eliminate pervasive corruption, stop the use of scarce resources for defense and luxury projects, and reverse repression of internal dissent. Appendices include statistical data on basic indicators (Gross National Product, adult literacy, life expectancy, infant mortality, growth of per capita food production, levels of food imports, external debt and debt service, net transfers of external finance, and actual and projected populations. Descriptors: Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecology, Economic Development

Caterini, Charles (1982). Investigating a Seashore. The Outdoor Education Program for student-teachers in University of New Brunswick's (Canada) Faculty of Education comprises four weekend trips to study four different ecosystems. The seashore community of Deer Island (New Brunswick) was chosen in 1980 as a typical ecosystem. The 3-day field trip revolved around activities that could be adapted for use with elementary through secondary classes. Before the outing the student-teachers were briefed; following the trip, "round-up" sessions considered ways to integrate the trip's activities with the main school program. The trip began with an orientation and continued throughout the weekend with activities, including: a hike around the Island, map studies of the area, a lecture on the Island's marine biology, sketching the beach, determining low and high tide, recording plants and animal life, studying a tide-pool, barnacles and Periwinkle shells, looking for evidence of man's pollution, reflecting on thoughts stimulated by the environment, visiting a herring weir and the local wharf, touring a coastal fishing village, touring the Passamaquoddy area by boat and a demonstration of scallop dragging, learning about the local lore, and a compass activity. Response to the weekend of intensive study and exploration was great. Descriptors: Ecology, Environmental Education, Experiential Learning, Field Studies

Childs, Sally A. (1980). Adventure Deprivation – A Social Disease. Self Concept Through School Camp. People are steadily being deprived of decision making opportunities. However, the freedom and sense of adventure to be found in the outdoors can help renew feelings of self-direction in our lives. Many theories about the nature of self have been evolved since Aristotle's time. Social benefits, self conceptualization and self assessment may all result from the study of self. Outdoor education relates to self concept in its use of the natural environment as a laboratory to provide opportunities for educational growth through direct experiences and "real" discoveries. Resident camps can offer new social experiences as well as educational opportunities. A 1978 study of 60 seventh graders who attended a 5 day outdoor education camp and were tested before and after the experience indicated that although most showed no significant change, 3 students showed considerable growth in self concept. The element of risk involved in adventure programs can also be an effective catalyst for enhancing self concept. Programs like Outward Bound and Homeward Bound have been used as effective alternatives to traditional treatment programs for delinquents by helping develop positive self concepts. Outdoor adventure programs for adults, some corporation-sponsored, have been successful in encouraging leadership and self-confidence. Descriptors: Adult Learning, Adventure Education, Behavior Change, Delinquent Rehabilitation

ReVelle, Penelope; ReVelle, Charles (1984). The Environment: Issues and Choices for Society. Second Edition. This textbook is recommended for use in introductory level Environmental Studies courses. The content and format are designed to accommodate students with various academic backgrounds and to allow for a variety of teaching approaches (such as lectures, discussions, and case studies). Generally, each chapter provides background information, a controversial issue and viewpoints, supplementary material, and concludes with questions, references and suggestions for further reading. Graphics support the major concepts. The contents of the text are organized into eight sections and 34 chapters. Major headings for these sections and chapters include: (1) humans and other nations that inhabit the earth (ecosystems, wildlife); (2) resources of land and food (land habitats, soil erosion); (3) water resource problems (eutrophication, pollution control); (4) conventional sources of energy (coal, oil, nuclear power); (5) air pollution and energy-related water pollution (climate, acid rain, energy as a pollutant); (6) natural sources of power and energy conservation (wind, solar); (7) human health and the environment (carcinogens, toxic substances); and (8) land resource issues (private land-use, preserving natural areas). Descriptors: Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Energy

Laetsch, W. M.; Knott, Robert C. (1981). Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS): 1972-79. Final Project Report. Prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF), this report summarizes the development and work of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project from 1972 to 1979. One hundred activities for ten- to fifteen-year-olds in community groups (scouts, clubs, camps, churches, etc.) were developed, field tested, revised, and made available to the public. The intent of the materials was to increase the environmental awareness, knowledge, and management skills of future decision makers by teaching about major biological concepts and ecological interactions in an informal educational setting. Special characteristics of the program include a national scope within regional and local diversity, flexible use patterns, "leaderproof" activities, multidisciplinary approach, and grassroots involvement. This report outlines, phase by phase, the procedures used in developing OBIS and offers a model useful to other curriculum developers interested in producing attractive, community-based materials. It discusses the folios, field and resource centers, community involvement, activity production, instructional strategies, domestic and international adaptations, and commercial production (1979-1981).   [More]  Descriptors: Biology, Community Involvement, Community Organizations, Curriculum Development

Douma, Elaine L. (1980). Competency Based Consumer Education. This document is intended as a tool to help teachers develop a competency-based consumer education curriculum. It first briefly discusses the need for a competency-based approach over a K-14 continuum. The major portion of the document then consists of lists of competencies on a K-14 continuum that are nonsubject specific. They are categorized into the four major goal areas that comprise consumer education: (1) decision making; (2) resource management; (3) consumer roles, rights, responsibility; and (4) knowledge of the marketplace. Under each goal are five to seven subordinate objectives for which are listed grade level-appropriate indicators or statements that describe specific behaviors of individuals who have achieved given levels of competencies. (The grade levels are K-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and 13-14.) A one-page summary outline discusses use of the K-14 competency-based consumer education matrix. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Competency Based Education, Consumer Economics, Consumer Education

Green, Gaye Leigh (1996). Installation Art: A Bit of a Spoiled Brat or Provocative Pedagogy?, Art Education. Provides an introduction and overview of installation art. Installation art challenges the accepted notion of passive viewing and comments on concepts concerning art and the environment by creating spatial environments using natural materials. Describes several student installation art projects and the issues raised by this approach. Descriptors: Aesthetic Values, Art Appreciation, Art Criticism, Art Education

Sinanoglu, Paula A., Ed.; Maluccio, Anthony N., Ed. (1981). Parents of Children in Placement: Perspectives and Programs. Addressed primarily to direct service personnel and others interested in direct work with parents, this book includes a collection of articles reflecting different perspectives on and approaches to parents involved with the foster care system. Following introductory chapters which examine the emerging focus of interest on parents of children in placement and the role of the caseworker in working with parents of such children, the book is divided into the following sections: perspectives of early child welfare professionals on the topic; discussions from an ecological perspective on the topic; discussions from a sociocultural perspective on the topic; examinations of pertinent legal issues; viewpoints on the importance of parents for children in placement; viewpoints on the impact of child placement on parents; perspectives on programs and methods of working with parents; and discussions of special aspects of child welfare, including worker burnout and parent-child visitation. Each section is prefaced by a brief discussion of the particular readings and their relevance, as well as suggestions for further reading. Descriptors: Adoption, American Indians, Biological Parents, Burnout

Butzow, John W.; And Others (1980). What Adventures Can You Have in Wetlands, Lakes, Ponds, and Puddles? A Marine Education Infusion Unit on Wet Environments. Revised Edition. Intended for use in middle and junior high schools, these nine classroom and field activities help students better understand the great diversity of natural communities and the complex interactions of aquatic organisms. A background information section presents teachers with an overview of wetlands, streams, lakes and ponds, and puddles. Classroom activities ask students to view films, participate in a food web exercise, create indoor wet environments using jars and a small children's plastic swimming pool, decorate the classroom with art projects, and study the human history of salt marshes. Field trips allow students to investigate a stream, saltwater marsh, lake, and the school-site watershed. Each activity outlines the objectives, field site when appropriate, materials, timing, and procedures. Teacher resources include lists of organizations, people, teaching units, places to visit, books, and films. Information sheets and student handouts are also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education. (1985). Energy and Resource Conservation. Minimum Standards Leadership Series 1985. This publication can be used as: a guide for improving, expanding, and balancing the existing energy and resource conservation education program; a resource for planning appropriate inservice education activities in energy and resource conservation education for school district personnel; and a source of information for locating high quality curricular materials, background information, and community resources. It consists of seven chapters which focus on, respectively: (1) energy and resource conservation in the curriculum (examining components and outcomes related to lifelong learning skills, concepts and understandings, and ethical behavior); (2) energy and resource conservation in the course of study (with excerpts from school district philosophies, program philosophies, program goals, and with suggestions for constructing a model course of study); (3) choosing energy and resource conservation activities; (4) teaching strategies; (5) planning inservice programs and types of inservice actvities; (6) using nonschool resources (including local resources, stage agency resources, state organizations, national organizations, and federal agencies); and (7) summary information. Appendices include biographical sketches of individuals who have made a contribution to envrionmental/conservation education and lists of curriculum and other types of resources. Descriptors: Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Development, Ecology

Caldwell, Lynton K. (1985). U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35. This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following six issues is provided: quality of the atmosphere, depletion of fresh water, loss of soil productivity, loss of genetic diversity, tropical deforestation, and toxic contamination and hazardous materials. In each of these cases, human behavior has disrupted the natural biogeochemical cycles of the biosphere, thereby generating chain reactions that multiply the problems confronting people and their governments. It is argued that regardless of the policy positions of the government on international environmental issues, U.S. citizens are involved in all of the aforementioned global issues and many more. The essay urges the United States to return to a position of leadership in global environmental matters, based on the conclusion that the cost of regaining credibility and leadership in international environmental affairs could be much less than the ultimate failure to do so. A glossary of acronyms and a list of Stanley Foundation papers and activities are also included in the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Citizen Participation, Ecology, Environmental Standards

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education. (1975). Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Entomology Specialist 1-5. This plan of instruction, lesson plans, and student study guides and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary level course for an entomology specialist are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The course includes training on procedures for insect and rodent control, collection and identification of specimens, determination of control measures, identification and use of treatment solutions, and operation and maintenance of insecticide dispersal equipment. Three blocks of instruction cover 155 hours: (1) Entomology Fundamentals, Pesticides, and Equipment (11 lessons, 49 hours); (2) Control of Medically Important Pests (9 lessons, 58 hours); and (3) Control of Economically Important Pests (7 lessons, 48 hours). A Specialty Training Standard for student evaluation is provided. The plan of instruction details the units of instruction, objectives, duration of lessons, and support materials needed. A study guide and a workbook are provided for each block. These materials contain objectives, reading assignments, and review exercises. Military manuals, commercial texts, and audiovisuals are recommended, but not provided. A pictorial reference ("Pictorial Keys") on insects is available from the National Center Clearinghouse–see availability statement.   [More]  Descriptors: Agricultural Education, Agricultural Occupations, Agriculture, Behavioral Objectives

Peterson, James R. (1984). Energy and Water Conservation Curriculum Development in Irrigation Technology for the Pacific Northwest. Final Report. This project was conducted to develop curriculum materials for classes in energy and water conservation for the Irrigation Technology Program at Walla Walla Community College. To develop the curriculum, the principal investigator read and analyzed materials on the subjects of water and energy conservation, participated in a short course on drip irrigation, contacted businesses in the West to discuss the practices used for water and energy conservation, and attended the 1984 International Irrigation Exposition and Conference. The final result was the development of two new three-quarter credit classes titled "Drip Irrigation" and "Water and Energy Conservation." It was found that there was a large demand from the irrigation industry for people with a background in energy and water conservation, so the classes were designed to supply those needs. In the future, sections of the classes will be used as short seminars. (Outlines of the two courses and a list of resources used are included as appendixes to this report.) Descriptors: Agronomy, Community Colleges, Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment)

Fogl, John; Landes, Nancy (1979). Of 100 You Only Get 10 or Food For Thought. Teacher's Guide and Student Guide. Net Energy Unit. Draft. This module consists of three activities and an evaluation section. Each activity can be conducted in class or assigned as homework. Activity 1 introduces the students to food chains and energy transfers through trophic levels. Activity 2 explores energy inputs and outputs in the United States food system and encourages the student to identify inefficiencies in the system. Activity 3 relates the financial cost of the energy intensive food system to the consumer. The evaluation section allows the student to suggest means of decreasing the energy consumption of our food system.   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Conservation Education, Curriculum Development, Ecology

Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others (1984). Harvesting the Ocean: 3. Using the Sea Wisely. This booklet contains the third in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The unit, intended primarily for upper secondary students, consists of readings and interdisciplinary activities (science, art, social studies, English, and home economics) presented in four parts. Part 1 looks at the issue of using the sea wisely in broad terms and raises the question of the world's food problem and present and potential ocean resources. Part 2 gives a basic introduction to some concepts of international law as they relate to the law of the sea. A case study on the regulation of whales is included. Part 3 examines the main sources of ocean pollution, focusing in particular on oil spills and chemical effluent from industry. The importance of and damage to shoreline and estuarine systems is addressed, as is the effectiveness of the Kuala Juru Co-operative in Malaysia, where local inhabitants responded to pollution by creating a new aquaculture fishery and administering it through a cooperative. Part 4, which focuses on fishery management, includes a case study on the state of the Southern Bluefin and discussions of ecosystem management, aquaculture, and finding alternatives for fish and fish products. Descriptors: Ecology, Environmental Standards, Estuaries, Fisheries

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 614 of 627)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John M. Hunter, L. Reed Brantley, John H. Perkins, Colleen Murakami, of New York State Univ, Bruce Krushelnicki, Robert Ben Peyton, Michael J. Brody, Helmut Koch, and Kerry Baldwin.

Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M. (1995). Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study, Journal of Geography. Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. Descriptors: Chemical Analysis, Drinking Water, Ecological Factors, Ecology

Andersson, Bengt-Erik; Gunnarsson, Lars (1984). Family Support and Development: A Longitudinal, Ecological Study of Families with Children of Pre-School and Junior-Level Age (The FAST-Project), School Research Newsletter. Part of an international joint project involving five countries, this report details a 5-year longitudinal, ecological investigation of Swedish families. The study focused on the circumstances and development of children from the time they were 3.5-year-olds until the end of grade 1. The investigation also included national substudies not having any counterpart in the research programs of other participating countries. The main research methods employed were interviews and observations designed to yield information on the following points: family background and changes in the family over time; parental experience of conditions making things easier and more difficult for parents of very young children; the social network of the family; the child's activities (how the child spends his or her day and patterns of social interaction with adults and children in and outside the home); and various aspects of child development. Contacts between homes and preschool institutions and between homes and schools were investigated by means of questionnaires addressed to parents, preschool staff, and teachers. All data were collected between 1978 and 1984, and findings are reported in 30 publications cited at the end of the report. Analyses in progress concern (1) cross-national comparisons of the social networks of mothers; (2) the working situation of parents of young children as related to child development; (3) the different roles of fathers and mothers; (4) family changes over time; (5) children's activities and relations; (6) parental experience of formal support systems; (7) educational patterns and emotional climate; and (8) sex-stereotype socialization between 3 and 7 years of age. No presently available analyses include school data; such analyses will be made during 1984-85 on data obtained through follow-up of background information, questionnaires addressed to grade 1 teachers, questionnaires to parents, interviews with children, and ability tests. Descriptors: Change, Child Development, Child Rearing, Ecology

Brantley, L. Reed; And Others (1983). FAST: Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching. Instructional Guide. Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) is a program which is intended to facilitate student transition from the general science process programs of elementary schools to the discipline-oriented programs of high school. This guide has been developed to provide an overview of the total program as well as a description of the instructional materials and strategies. The information in the document: (1) explains the assumptions, goals, and objectives of the FAST program; (2) describes the content of the three FAST levels (the local environment–FAST 1; flow of matter and energy in the biosphere–FAST 2; and change over time–FAST 3); (3) outlines alternative time schedules and sequences of student investigations; (4) identifies teacher and student materials and their use; and (5) suggests general strategies for classroom organizations and management. Particular attention is given to guidelines for planning and conducting effective group interactions for problem solving situations. Descriptors: Change, Ecological Factors, Ecology, Energy

Quinlan, Susan E. (1986). Alaska Wildlife Week, Upper Elementary Teacher's Guide. Unit 4. We All Need Each Other–The Web of Life. April 20-26, l986. The ecological theme of "We all need each other–the web of life" serves as the focus of Alaska's fourth annual wildlife week and as the emphasis for the activities in this guide for upper elementary teachers. The packet of materials contains: (1) an introduction (explaining the theme); (2) table of contents (indicating each lesson's objective and the location of its background sheets, students worksheets and activities, and curriculum integration ideas); (3) list of worksheets (providing titles, summaries, and page numbers for the ll activities); (4) worksheet solutions (listing answers and/or explanations for each of the exercises); (5) glossary (offering an illustrated dictionary of selected ecological terms); (6) ecosystem crossword puzzle; (7) lessons (containing objectives, background information, vocabulary list, activities, and curriculum integration suggestions); (8) ideas and references for ecosystem investigations (suggesting techniques and phenomenon to explore in the outdoors); (9) classification guide (explaining the four kingdoms of living things); (l0) Alaskan food chain and food web examples (citing specific relationships common to four ecosystems); and (ll) references. Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary Education, Elementary School Science, Environmental Education

Brody, Michael J.; Koch, Helmut (1986). An Assessment of 4th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students' Knowledge Related to Marine Science and Natural Resource Issues. In an effort to contribute information for science teachers and curriculum developers in Maine, this study generated base line data on 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students' knowledge of marine science and natural resources principles in relation to the Gulf of Maine. Five concept maps representing 15 major content principles were developed. Two hundred twenty-six students from 12 schools in Maine were interviewed on marine science, natural resources and decision-making concepts and principles. Student knowledge was then classified according to correct concepts, missing concepts and misconceptions. Similarities and differences between the three grade levels were analyzed and compared to results of the Maine Assessment of Educational Progress in Science. The results indicated that the students in the sample did learn a few basic marine and natural resource concepts in the elementary grades, but that there was little further assimilation of new concepts or differentiation of existing concepts as students progressed through the grades. The results are discussed with regard to possible implications for future marine science curricula.   [More]  Descriptors: Biology, Cognitive Measurement, Concept Formation, Concept Mapping

Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce (1987). The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such factors as geology, climate, the hydrological cycle, surface runoff, groundwater, wetlands, lake levels, lake processes (such as stratification and turnover), and living resources. Chapter three, "People and the Great Lakes," traces the earliest settlers that first began to fish, farm, and deforest the basin, and whose descendants spawned the massive urban and industrial growth of today. Chapter four explores the concerns many have about the Great Lakes today, including the effects of eutrophication, pathogens, toxics, biomagnification, and other polluting factors. Chapter five examines some of the ways that governments have sought to respond to many of the difficulties facing the lakes, and chapter six discusses some of the future scenarios of the Great Lakes. Included is a glossary, a metric conversion chart, references and suggestions for further reading, maps, figures, and factsheets. Descriptors: Depleted Resources, Ecological Factors, Ecology, Environmental Education

Engleson, David C. (1986). Recent Wisconsin Initiatives in Environmental Education. Wisconsin was one of the first states to establish statutory requirements for teaching about natural resources and conservation. This paper describes some recent developments and initiatives that have been undertaken in Wisconsin since 1980. A new teacher certification rule was officially promulgated in October 1983, and went into effect on July 1, 1985. It requires that candidates seeking teacher certification in the areas of early childhood, elementary, agriculture, science, and social studies education be able to demonstrate competency in four areas of content (natural resources conservation, energy, ecological principles, and people-environment interactions) and also in three areas of methodology. A Guide to Curriculum Planning Environmental Education was published in 1986, and offers a rationale for environmental education. The guide includes the philosophy, goals, and objectives of environmental education, and identifies the kinds of objectives appropriate for different grade levels. It is intended that this guide will be used by schools in meeting a new school district standard, requiring a curriculum plan for environmental education, which goes into effect in 1988-89. New standards for teachers of high school environmental studies are also discussed. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Energy Education

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services. (1986). Moloka'i: Fishponds. Designed to help teachers implement marine education in their classrooms, this module provides information regarding a vanishing Hawaiian resource, fishponds. Due to the impact of present day human activities on shoreline areas, the size and number of fishponds have been greatly reduced; therefore, this module focuses on fishponds as a resource management tool. Descriptions are provided of the biological and physical features of fishponds. Activities are presented by the topic areas of: (1) plants in the fishpond food system; (2) fishpond sediments; (3) animals living in the sediment; (4) fishpond predators; (5) mangroves; (6) mullet; and (7) fishpond construction. Activities contain a learning objective, material list, procedures, and in most cases discussion questions. A bibliography is included and appendices consist of an identification guide to common fishpond inhabitants and a field trip to Ali'i Fishpond.   [More]  Descriptors: Biology, Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Baldwin, Kerry; And Others (1985). Arizona Teachers Resource Guide for Environmental Education. Grades K-12. [Revised]. This document represents the second revision of a similar guide (no longer in print) originally published in 1974. It was developed to help teachers in Arizona encourage students to: (1) become aware of human dependence on natural resources; (2) gain a fundamental understanding about our natural resources; (3) intelligently react to problems of waste and damage to natural resources, and (4) search for solutions. The guide contains chapters on the sun, water, geology, soil, plants, animals, climate, and humans and the environment. These list and discuss a set of concepts. The background information and explanatory material within these chapters was developed to help teachers understand each concept. A major portion of the guide provides 34 teaching activities which address these concepts and are keyed to different grade levels and subject areas. Another section of the guide includes a set of fact sheets containing questions and answers about various natural resources. Also included is a glossary of terms and a set of references. Descriptors: Biology, Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Osis, Vicki; And Others (1986). Gateway to the Pacific: The Columbia River. Teacher's Resource Book, Grades 5-7. Developed as part of an international curriculum effort, this unit aims to provide information to students about the interdependence of Pacific nations and the importance of the Columbia River and its ports in international trade. Geared for grades 5-7, the materials focus on harbors both as natural ecosystems and as locations of international ports for the exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods. Part 1 of the guide includes lessons which present activities related to: (1) entering the harbor; (2) use of the harbor; (3) the harbor environment; and (4) you and your harbor. A series of readings comprise part 2. Part 3 contains vocabulary lists which are designed to be used with the specific readings found in section 2. Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary Education, Elementary School Science, Environmental Education

Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others (1986). International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III. This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education adoption potential of inservice workshop participants in both developed and developing countries. Section 2 contains papers on methods and perspectives on the evaluation of curriculum. It includes articles dealing with the evaluation of environmental education and curriculum materials, analyses of case studies of international environmental campaigns, a study of preconceptions of the biosphere held by children in several countries, and an examination of a new environmental awareness in science education. Section 3 includes two curricular proposals. One describes an action research approach to environmental problem solving, while the other proposes a method for teaching about international environmental issues at the university level. The final section of the document contains two papers on the environmental problems of international significance. One paper summarizes recent scientific findings on acid rain. The second proposes an educational strategy for addressing the problem of nuclear arms. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Area Studies, Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Research

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed. (1985). People's Participation in Development and the Management of Natural Resources. Report on the Caribbean Regional Workshop (Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, April 15-19, 1985). This Caribbean Regional Workshop was organized to bring together representatives of private, voluntary, and community development organizations, governmental agencies, and other non-governmental organizations in the Eastern Caribbean who were concerned with environmental quality. The conference was intended to improve the level of citizen participation in development efforts aimed at satisfying human needs on an ecologically sustainable basis. This document summarizes the points made by the workshop's principal speakers and the substantive ideas brought forth in the discussion groups. Part one of the document deals with "People's Participation: Issues, Elements, Strategies." Part two includes case studies presented at the workshop from St. Lucia, the Dominican Republic, other Caribbean Islands, and from Canada. The appendices include a statement of purpose and objectives of the workshop, a summary of the workshop program, an evaluation of the workshop, and a listing of participating agencies. Descriptors: Case Studies, Citizen Participation, Community Action, Community Development

Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, Robert Ben (1986). Procedures for Developing an Environmental Education Curriculum. A Discussion Guide for UNESCO Training Seminars on Environmental Education. Environmental Educational Series 22. In 1980, the International Environmental Education Program of UNESCO published Strategies for Developing an Environmental Education Curriculum, to be used as a working document for a series of regional workshops. This publication is a revision of the 1980 document and is intended to provide an update for curriculum developers in environmental education. Patterns and trends in the field of environmental education are discussed, particularly with regard to curriculum development. A major portion of the document, entitled Environmental Education Curriculum and Materials Development, contains sections on: (1) guidelines for designing an environmental education curriculum format; (2) criteria for decision making in environmental curriculum development; (3) benefits derived from using the goals for curriculum development; (4) an instructional model which applies the goals; (5) procedural guidelines and considerations for curriculum development; (6) the preparation of teachers in environmental education; (7) the implementation of environmental education curricula; and (8) comprehensive environmental education curriculum evaluation. The appendices include sample activities based on the stated curriculum development goals and a nine-page bilbiography. Descriptors: Curriculum Design, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Research

Hawkins, John, Ed.; Murakami, Colleen, Ed. (1986). Kaua'i: Streams and Estuaries. Designed to help teachers develop students' awareness and understanding of some of Hawaii's endangered aquatic resources, this module contains activities and instructional suggestions for use with intermediate as well as high school students. The module is divided into two sections which explore the streams and estuaries of Kauai. Activities in each section contain a learning objective, material list, procedures, and in most cases discussion questions. Many of the activities provide opportunities for students and teachers to interact directly with the environment. Although the module deals with specific sites on Kauai, the information and activities presented are applicable to comparable sites on any of the other islands. Appendices contain several instructional directives among which are: (1) identification guide to exotic stream fuana; (2) identification and biology of native stream animals; (3) plankton net construction; (4) identification guide to life in Hawaiian estuaries; (5) tables for conversion of specific gravity to salinity and (6) suggested additional activities for estuary field trips.   [More]  Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

State Univ., of New York, Plattsburgh. Coll. at Plattsburgh. Center for the Study of Canada. (1984). Canadian Studies for Elementary and Junior High School Teachers. A Syllabus and Resource Guide. Developed to promote greater awareness and understanding of Canada by American students and teachers, this interdisciplinary curriculum guide includes not only social studies, but also activities dealing with mathematics, science, environmental studies, English, art, and music. The book is divided into five modules, each giving a different perspective–geographic, economic, historical, social, and political. Each module is structured around key concepts, skills and attitudes, teacher notes, focus questions, coded activities, and discussion questions. Following each module is a series of relevant maps and illustrations, such as cartoons and graphs, all pertinent readings and a bibliography. All units could be taught independently or incorporated into other courses of study. The ethnic and linguistic diversity of Canada is emphasized throughout the curriculum. Though American-Canadian cooperation is included throughout the units, the uniqueness of Canada is also stressed. Descriptors: Area Studies, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Pluralism, Curriculum Guides

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 613 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Leni L. Bane, K. M. Sytnik, Ann Babcock, Diane C. Cantrell, Martha C. Monroe, Wally Cole, Hartford. Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Rudy Bohm, Marjorie R. Gordon, and Matthew J. Brennan.

Gordon, Marjorie R.; Bane, Leni L. (1983). Florida Marine Education Resources Bibliography. Report Number 51, Florida Sea Grant College. This multidisciplinary, annotated bibliography is offered to K-12 teachers, other educators, librarians, concerned parents, and community leaders to simplify locating and acquiring marine education materials and infusing marine subjects into existing curricula. Included are printed materials currently available from commercial publishers, government agencies, or educational institutions. Unpublished materials prepared by teachers for use in their classes are also included. The document is divided into two major sections: five categories of resource materials and three indices to the materials (including author, curriculum area, and application indices). Entries within each of the five categories are generally grouped according to curriculum area and/or application, and then by increasing age of students. The five sections of bibliographic entries are: elementary (with separate listings for grades K-4 and 4-7); secondary (with separate listings for junior/senior high and high school/adult); general reference; library and special interest; and teacher-produced materials. Each entry includes: entry number, title, date, author(s), publisher, address, and annotation. Each annotation includes: key words for curriculum area and application; descriptive paragraph; number of pages or approximate time to complete work; who will use the item; and price range. A suggested K-12 spiral curriculum for science is also included in an appendix.   [More]  Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford. (1987). The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet. This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities. The activities are divided into three sections. Each of the three sections begins with a reading assignment study sheet and contains one or more appropriate activities. These activities include the following topics: (1) Where does air pollution comes from? (2) Types of air pollution and their effects; and (3) What can we do about air pollution? Another section lists various resources available to teachers, such as media aids, school presentations and speakers' bureaus. Also included are sources for further information on air quality topics, bibliographies for teachers and students, individual activity evaluation forms, and a description of Connecticut's air pollution emergency plan. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Environmental Education

Kolb, James A. (1981). Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight. This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor topography; (3) the hydrologic cycle and weather; (4) adaptation and diversity; (5) marine food chains; (6) currents; (7) mining the ocean floor; (8) whaling; (9) offshore oil production; (10) boating and (11) the California gray whale population. Each section has a student text with related activities. Each student text is preceded by a teacher background section containing hints on how to use the section, additional information, and items requiring advanced planning. Each activity is preceded by a teacher background section providing additional information about the activity, including teaching hints and answer key for activities. Important vocabulary words/terms are listed in the teacher background sections; they are underlined in the student text. Activities are designed to enhance reading as well as investigational skills; several activities provide practice in mathematics skills. Although all activities can be modified to suit individual needs or be used "as is," it is strongly recommended that they be performed along with the readings/discussions found in student text material. Descriptors: Ecology, Environmental Education, Geology, Grade 7

Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others (1982). Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 6-8. Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 6, 7, and 8 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be changed from one form to another; (4) the sun is the earth's chief source of radiant energy; (5) people use energy to satisfy their needs; (6) energy supplies are limited; and (7) living things are interdependent with one another and with their environment. Each unit includes a pre-/post-test evaluation instrument, lesson plans, and supplemental activities. Lesson plans consist of a specific energy concept, objective, and instructional strategies for introducing, developing, and extending the lesson. Purpose, materials, and procedures are provided for each of the supplemental student activities. The guide begins with a brief introduction to teachers and statement of the energy policy for Florida and concludes with a list of key vocabulary words (Enerwords), bibliography, sources of energy information and teaching materials, and an evaluation sheet. Descriptors: Conservation Education, Ecology, Elementary School Science, Energy

Cantrell, Diane C. (1987). A Case Study Analysis of Curriculum Implementation as Exemplified by Project WILD in One Midwestern State. Designed for elementary and secondary teachers, Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental education program which emphasizes wildlife. This study examines the process of curriculum implementation as exemplified by Project WILD in Ohio by tracing its implementation from the national level to the use of instructional materials in the classroom. In this case, curriculum implementation refers to actions undertaken to put into effect educational programs, policies, and/or practices which already exist and are new to the people attempting or expecting to use them. Naturalistic research techniques used for data collection included participant observation and interviewing and documentation at four levels of implementation. Emerging from the results were seven themes, including: (1) curriculum implementation evolved as a complex process with overlapping and interactive processes; (2) safeguards for implementation included the quality and nature of Project WILD and the structure of the inservice program; (3) workshops were the most important strategy for implementation; (4) an emphasis on flexibility permeated the implementation process, workshops and materials; (5) teachers were viewed as significant players in implementation; (6) a partnership between resource management and education played an important role; and (7) implementation was shaped by an element of fate and the human dimension. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Curriculum Research, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education

Bohm, Rudy; Cole, Wally (1982). Student Preparation Workbook for the Multnomah Outdoor School. Revised Edition. Designed for sixth grade students to help them prepare for the Multnomah County (Oregon) Outdoor School experience, the workbook provides fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners (rules for working in the woods). A section devoted to each resource area provides general information on the specific resource; a glossary of terms and words which students will be expected to know; and learning activities which include charts, matching activities, drawing sheets, labeling and completing study sheets, bingo games, crossword puzzles, word searches, and word scrambles. The activities address the following topics: the water cycle, dissolved oxygen, pH (a measurement scale indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a plant or animal environment), the crayfish, water-loving plants and animals, the soil profile, trees, leaves, vertebrates, insects, reptiles and amphibians, birds, mammals, and the ecosystem. Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Educational Games, Environmental Education

Babcock, Ann; And Others (1987). Environmental Education Guidelines for Washington Schools. Developed to provide teachers with specific directions for teaching about the environment, these guidelines for Washington state schools explain how environmental education can be integrated into every level of the school system. A general systems approach is proposed that emphasizes the interactions that exist within the natural environment. The guidelines identify core themes and a conceptual structure that encourages a synthesis of subject matter across and between a variety of traditional disciplines. Contents include: (1) philosophy of environmental education; (2) identification of ten core themes; (3) directives on using the guidelines; (4) framework for environmental education; (5) learner outcomes for four major goal areas; (6) steps in carrying out an environmental program; (7) planning model; (8) staff development inservice program; and (9) program evaluation. Appendices contain lists of curriculum programs and resources, a glossary, and the legal authority for environmental education in the State of Washington.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Development, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development. (1983). Human Biology: Experimental. Education is a process of adapting to change, and the rate of change is especially rapid in science today. This curriculum in human biology is an alternative to the New York State courses in general and Regents biology, and it has been designed to focus on change from the standpoint of the urban student. It is designed to provide students with experiences which encourage the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills. The laboratory experiments are intended to involve students in both the evaluation and interpretation of data, as well as in the design of their own experiments. The document is divided into nine broad units, with each unit divided into a series of sub-topics. The major topics covered are: (1) Why Do We Study Biology? (2) Of What Are Living Things Made? (3) How Do Our Cells Get the Materials They Need? (4) How Do Our Bodies Carry Out Their Activities? (5) Why Do We Behave the Way We Do? (6) How Can We Prevent and Control Disease? (7) How Do Humans Reproduce? (8) What Determines What We Are? and (9) How Have Living Things Changed? Each page in the guide is divided into four columns: (1) performance objectives; (2) basic understandings; (3) suggested procedures; and (4) enrichment activities. Descriptors: Biology, Blood Circulation, Disease Control, Ecology

Jakubowski, Nancy (1987). Kenya: A Country in Transition. A Teaching Unit from ZPG. This secondary teaching unit is intended to help students in science and social studies understand some of the forces behind rapid population growth in developing nations and the challenges these countries face. The document includes a student handout that is designed to compare and contrast the demographic transition experienced by developing countries with the changes occurring in Kenya today. It then illustrates the political, economic and environmental impacts of Kenya's rapid population growth. The handout also includes a glossary of terms. The accompanying teaching guide provides five classroom activities that attempt to reinforce the key concepts introduced by the reading. It also discusses how some of our lifestyle decisions can contribute to trends that shape the future.  Specific discussion questions precede the teacher's unit and a list of other teaching resources is provided. Descriptors: Case Studies, Developing Nations, Ecology, Environmental Education

Sobsey, Dick (1987). Using Transitions in Program Planning: A Practical Approach. Several models have been developed to aid in selecting appropriate educational content for special needs students. These include the developmental model, behavioral model, categorical model, and environmental or ecological model. The ecological model involves determining the skills that a fully functioning member of society normally performs in the environments that the learner inhabits, analyzing the discrepancies between those skills and the learner's current performance, and making those discrepancies the learner's curricular objectives. The ecological inventory of skills involves five levels: domains, environments, subenvironments, activities, and critical functions. The central focus of an environmental approach to curriculum is the individual's adaptation to transitions, or changes in environmental requirements that an individual experiences. Transitions may be predictable age-appropriate transitions, normalizing transitions, or backward transitions. Steps are outlined for using transitions in program planning, focusing on: 3-year plans; types of potential transitions; use of a least restrictive environment; and teaching of critical skills as well as additional skills that may enhance adjustment, such as social skills. Instructional methods emphasize social integration and behavioral teaching strategies.   [More]  Descriptors: Adaptive Behavior (of Disabled), Adjustment (to Environment), Curriculum, Developmental Stages

Jones, Claire (1980). Beach Profiles and Transects. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers living in Washington State. Each activity packet provides the teacher with a set of lessons dealing with a particular topic related to the oceans. Included are student worksheets, lesson plans, a vocabulary list, and a bibliography. This activity packet designed for grade levels 8-9 focuses on making measurements on beaches. The activity "Profiles" gives directions on how to measure and record the profile of a slope. In the "Transect" activity, students sample populations using the single line transect-quadrat method. This activity is intended to follow up studies of beach zonation in the packet "Beaches." In addition to measuring and sampling techniques, analysis of the inter-relatedness of beach life and environmental factors is stressed.   [More]  Descriptors: Ecology, Environmental Education, Field Instruction, Field Trips

Bohm, Rudy; Cole, Wally (1982). Student Preparation Workbook for the Multnomah Outdoor School. Teacher Edition. Revised. Designed for use by sixth grade teachers in preparing their classes for the Multnomah County (Oregon) Outdoor School experience, the guide to the Student Preparation Workbook provides general information, descriptions, game materials, and answers to the exercises and puzzles. Beginning with an introduction to environmental manners (rules for working in the woods), the guide is divided into four sections, each devoted to a resource area: soil, water, plants, and animals. Each section consists of introductory information, a glossary of terms and words students will be expected to know, and various learning activities and games (e.g., charts, matching and drawing activities, labeling and completing study sheets, bingo games, crossword puzzles, word searches, and word scrambles). The activities address the water cycle, dissolved oxygen, pH (a measurement scale indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a plant or animal environment), the crayfish, water-loving plants and animals, the soil profile, trees, leaves, vertebrates, insects, reptiles and amphibians, birds, mammals, and the ecosystem. Descriptors: Answer Keys, Botany, Ecology, Educational Games

Berkmuller, Klaus; Monroe, Martha C. (1986). World Conservation Strategy: A Programme for Youth. Manual for Youth Environmental Projects. Education Training and Awareness Series No. 1. This manual was written to help youth groups organize and implement environmental action projects in their communities. Because numerous types of groups exist around the world, the term "youth group" is used to represent any organized effort of young people. The activities in this document were designed for ages 12-20. Although groups with prior experience in community projects may find this manual a useful source of additional hints and activities, the major focus of the guide is directed toward groups with an environmental interest and little previous experience in environmental action. It contains sections dealing with: (1) the World Conservation Strategy; (2) an example of a project involving the pollution of a local pond; (3) ecological processes, genetic diversity, and sustainable use; (4) program planning; and (5) a variety of activities related to awareness, concepts, values, skills, and learning about issues. The appendices include a glossary, a list of conservation strategies from various countries and a list of related materials. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Ecology, Environmental Education, Environmental Standards

Sytnik, K. M.; And Others (1985). Living in the Environment: A Sourcebook for Environmental Education. This document presents a survey of ideas concerning environmental issues and educational efforts to improve the quality of life. Chapter one, "Environmental Education for Understanding and Solving Environmental Problems," includes sections on the relationship between cultural heritage and the environment, and methodologies in environmental education. Chapter two, "Basic Components of Environmental Problems," addresses the functions of the biosphere and basic ecological principles. Chapter three, "Fundamental Problems of the Man-Environment Interaction," includes sections on ecological balance, atmospheric pollution, conservation and management of water resources, ocean pollution, conservation of land and forest resources, population growth, nutrition problems, and urbanization.  Chapter four, "A New Approach to Studies and Protection of the Environment," contains information on economic development, management of environmental protection, and international cooperation in environmental protection. The document was designed to be a sourcebook of information for elementary and secondary teachers. A glossary is included. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Ecological Factors, Ecology, Elementary School Science

Brouse, Deborah E. (1985). The Population Challenge. A Teaching Unit from ZPG. Maintaining a balance between population and the resources needed to sustain life on earth is a critical challenge. This teaching unit focuses on this challenge by providing teachers with information and activities on both the national and global impacts of population growth. The document contains: (1) basic information about the population challenge; (2) some techniques for helping students understand large numbers; (3) a riddle on exponential growth; (4) a quiz on population and the environment (along with an answer key) which can be used in connection with an insert; (5) a list of statements for student reactions; (6) classroom and out-of-school activities; and (7) a listing of fact sheets, films, brochures, newsletters, and teaching kits that deal with population. A special insert, "The Population Challenge," provides additional background information on this issue. The insert contains a call for a need for greater awareness, explanations about the earth's life support systems, and options for individual action. Descriptors: Controversial Issues (Course Content), Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 612 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Barbara Korman, Edward P. Donovan, M. Brophy, MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center. Jackson Community Coll, Philip Kane, Pam Zenke, Micki McKisson, CA. Rialto Unified School District, Scientific United Nations Educational, and Gerard Solomon.

Weigel, Margaret (1980). Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9. Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are followed by: (1) a 2-page bibliography of titles for student and teacher reference published between 1943 and 1978; (2) 15 pages of definitions covering terminology used in the study of aquatic plants and animals; (3) activities introducing the plants, animals, and the food pyramid found in ponds and lakes; (4) activity sheets for field trip observations; (5) field trip preparations and activities; (6) procedures for setting up an aquatic life laboratory and for studying items collected on field trips; (7) an aquatic life laboratory record sheet and directions for making aquatic insect aquariums; (8) instructions for raising dragon fly nymphs and for collecting and maintaining diving beetles, water scavenger beetles, water scorpions, and water boatman beetles in the aquariums; and (9) activities for observing hydra and planaria. A word puzzle on aquatic life terms and illustrations of several aquatic insects and of an aquatic insect aquarium are included. This document is part of a collection of materials from the Iowa Area Education Agency 7 Teacher Center project. Descriptors: Class Activities, Ecology, Entomology, Experiential Learning

Rialto Unified School District, CA. (1983). Our World, Its Diverse Peoples. Sixth Grade Social Studies Course Outline. A sixth grade social studies curriculum provides a context for a comparative study of individuals and societies. Material is divided into 14 sections. An introduction (section 1) outlines course rationale and a proposed time schedule. Sections 2 through 5 contain objectives, activities, and resources for the study of geography, culture, government, and economy and technology. The remaining sections outline related social studies units required in California. Section 6 is a mini-unit on drug awareness. Section 7 consists of vocabulary and student background material for a camp experience in the San Bernardino Mountains. Sections 8 through 14 contain the following optional units to be used in the curriculum as time permits: adaptation, anthropology, technology, earth forces and geology, wildlife problems and protection, and the ecosystem. For each unit, teacher introductory material, student activities, and resources are provided. Descriptors: Anthropology, Behavioral Objectives, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Awareness

Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center. (1982). Nature's Hitchhikers. A Fall Activity Packet for Second Grade. This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics of seeds. Strategies for using these activities with second grade students are also provided. The pre-trip activities focus on the nature of seeds, student's dependence on seeds and plants, the requirements for seed growth, and methods of seed dispersal. Five activity sheets and a letter to parents explaining the purpose of the program are included. The post-trip activities provide students with opportunities to investigate seed germination and plant growth. A list of formal and non-formal objectives for both indoor and outdoor field trip activities at the DEEC are presented in a separate field trip guide. Most of the activities are interdisciplinary and can enhance student skills in mathematics, reading, and spelling as well as science. In addition, the activities are designed to sharpen such skills as observing, classifying, measuring, and interpreting.   [More]  Descriptors: Botany, Ecology, Elementary School Mathematics, Elementary School Science

United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya). (1982). The State of The Environment 1972-1982. This report focuses on the changes (positive or negative) that occurred in the state of the world environment in the decade following the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment convened at Stockholm in June 1972. It also brings into focus the major environmental issues encountered or likely to be encountered. The first section focuses on the changing approach to the environment, discussing the evolution of environmental concerns prior to 1972, the Stockholm Conference, and developments since the conference. Environmental trends and issues during the 1970s are discussed in the second section. These issues/trends are considered under two broad areas: the natural environment and man and the environment. Areas discussed under the natural environment include: atomsphere; oceans; water; lithosphere; and terrestrial biota. Areas discussed under man and the environment include: population; human settlements; human health; bioproductive systems; industry; energy; transport; tourism; environmental education and public awareness; and peace, security, and the environment. General conclusions and a list of suggested actions by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme are provided in the last two sections. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Conferences, Developed Nations, Developing Nations

Bhat, J. L., Ed.; Bandhu, Desh, Ed. (1981). International Conference on Environmental Education (Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi, India, December 16-20, 1981). Abstracts. Abstracts of papers presented at the International Conference on Environmental Education are included in this document. Although title, author(s), and abstract are provided for each of the 124 entries, a table of contents and author/subject index are not included. Topics and issues addressed focus on various aspects of environmental education curriculum, instruction, instructional strategies, courses, programs, and specific topics (such as education in landscape architecture) at all educational levels. These include, among others, environmental degradation and the future of man; planning for culturally relevant environmental education; newspapers' role in educating the masses on environmental education issues in India; the relationship between population education and environmental education; the role of environmental education in society; environmental education for professionals/decision-makers in physical planning; the importance of integrated earth-science studies; instructional model for environmental education; anthropology and environmental education; awareness versus education on environment; the role of research and development institutions in environmental education; the teaching of environmental geoscience in Indian universities; needs of global environmental policy for using fossil fuels; climatic control of agroecosystems in western India; women's health risk problems associated with traditional fuels use and energy alternatives in India; and the education necessary for a scientific assessment of environmental impact of water development projects. Descriptors: Abstracts, Agriculture, Course Descriptions, Ecology

Donovan, Edward P.; Korman, Barbara (1983). High School Environmental Science Course Guide. A course in environmental science was developed to increase course options for students of all abilities and interest levels. Major topic areas of the course include: introduction to ecological principles and ecosystems; extinction of species; human population dynamics; agricultural systems and pest control; air quality; water quality; solid waste; energy and the environment; and noise pollution. This document provides (1) the philosophy of the course; (2) the course description; (3) the course outline; (4) a list of subject proficiency requirements arranged by major topic areas; (5) a table correlating these proficiences with course scope and sequence, instructional activities, and evaluation methods; (6) a list of procedures for course evaluation and review; (8) a course evaluation form; and (9) lists of instructional materials and equipment. Also included are a list of the educational goals of the Moorestown Public School District and a statement of the philosophy of this district's high school science department. Descriptors: Agriculture, Air Pollution, Course Content, Course Descriptions

McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda (1990). The Future of Our Tropical Rainforests. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving. Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies problem solving program for grades 4-12 that addresses six different global issues. The units are designed to provide students with knowledge and skills to address these major global issues actively. The unit presented in this document addresses the problems associated with the global effects of the loss of the tropical rainforests. This document includes information to assist teachers in organizing and directing students in their activities.  This teacher's guide includes a unit overview, instructions on how to collect information through letter writing (including addresses for appropriate organizations), three classroom activities, a set of fact cards, instructions for a scavenger hunt, instructions for a geography activity, instructions for research and independent study, and materials for a youth summit on tropical rainforests. Additional materials included in this packet are a discussion and chart of instructional techniques and thinking skills used in the unit, a glossary of terms and a bibliography of 64 books, articles, other resources, and games on tropical deforestation.   [More]  Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary School Science, Environmental Education, Forestry

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others (1980). Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education. A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school curriculum by means of firsthand observation and direct experience outside the classroom." Developing instructional programs is discussed in terms of roles of teachers, resource persons, and students. Components of a planned program are set forth: title, overview, objectives, materials, outline for presentation, evaluation, and bibliography. Activities for seasonal programs and any-time activities are listed. Evening programs for resident camp programs and suggested evening activities are covered briefly, as are planning for bad weather and elective activities. Three how-to sources are listed. Seven sample activities are described in detail, with sections for each on overview, objectives, materials, pre-camp and at-camp activities, and bibliography; sample data sheets are provided where necessary. Activities given study 10 common plants and their use; 10 common trees and their medical use; fallen log studies; senses in the out-of-doors; animals of the meadow; organic matter + sand + rocks + living organisms = soil; and design in nature. Descriptors: Camping, Discovery Learning, Ecology, Educational Objectives

Solomon, Gerard; And Others (1983). Wet Worlds: Explore the World of Water. Marine and Fresh Water Activities for the Elementary Classroom. Complete with student worksheets, field trip ideas, illustrations, vocabulary lists, suggested materials, and step-by-step procedures, the document presents a compilation of ideas for teaching elementary school (K-6) students about marine and fresh water. In the first unit students build miniature monuments and observe the deterioration of monuments exposed to acid rain. In unit 2 students design filtration methods for cleaning up dirty water. Unit 3 focuses on developing familiarity with marine and/or fresh water environments by promoting field trips to the shore. For those unable to visit a shore, unit 4 describes a possible field trip to a local fish market. In a look at geometric shapes, unit 5 explores the similar shapes of living organisms and mechanical devices that move quickly through water. In units 6 and 7, mathematical skills are employed when students map their schoolyard to predict where puddles will form and when students evaluate water usage at home, at school, and in their town. In unit 8 students prepare an Irish moss seaweed extract to discover the properties of algae. In unit 9 students simulate an oil spill and later assess which clean-up materials work best. The final section gives instructions and patterns for creating an icosahedron mobile to accompany and illustrate the preceeding wet world activities.   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Conservation (Environment), Data Analysis, Data Collection

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. (1982). Developing Materials for Biology Teaching. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop (Bangkok, Thailand, August 3-12, 1981). The major purposes of this workshop were to develop teaching and learning materials on certain selected key biology concepts relevant to environmental, genetic, and agricultural aspects, and to develop exemplary training materials on certain teacher competencies relating to laboratory and field techniques. Chapter One reports on the status and problems of biology education in India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Topic areas considered are biology in the school curriculum (including biology content and curriculum development efforts), instructional and curriculum materials, teacher competencies, and teacher education. Chapter two considers new trends in biology education, such as a shift from teaching botany and zoology as separate subjects toward a unified course of life sciences. The contributions that biology can make toward environmental education programs and the design of instructional materials for students and for teachers are also considered in light of the trends identified. Chapter three provides short descriptions of three teaching and training units. Topic areas of these materials include practical/laboratory techniques for teaching environmental factors, freshwater ecosystem and water pollution, the cell cycle, environmental biology utilizing field studies, types of variations, and the possibility of gamete formation in a dihybrid cross.   [More]  Descriptors: Biology, Curriculum Development, Ecology, Educational Trends

Zenke, Pam (1980). Clean, Safe Water. For How Long?. The document presents research and project-oriented activities at the secondary school level for studying Illinois' streams, water pollution, and methods for controlling pollution. Social, economic, and political issues are examined as part of the planning for pollution prevention. Following six teaching objectives, background information traces the development of federal water pollution legislation in the United States. Urban stormwater runoff, construction site erosion, coal mining, and soil erosion are described as major sources of water pollution. A student fact sheet on soil erosion is followed by a planning simulation exercise in which students role play state planners implementing water pollution controls. An activity sheet, designed for use with a road map, utilizes mathematics, geography, and the metric system in making students aware of streams in the area and their importance. Also included are suggestions for additional activities and for locating speakers, informational materials, or assistance in cleaning up a stream. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Environmental Education

Gates, Jane Potter (1990). Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. Third Edition. This directory contains an updated list of institutions involved in organic, low input, or sustainable agriculture that provide education, training, or information. Scope of coverage is the United States and Canada, with 124 listings for the United States and 5 for Canada. Arranged alphabetically, listings consist of institution name, address, contact person's name and telephone number, and a short description of the educational or training programs offered by the institution. Programs listed include: graduate research, courses, workshops, internships, summer programs, information bases, publications, and cooperative extension activities.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Farmer Education, Agricultural Education, Agricultural Production, Agriculture

Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center. (1984). Frogs and Toads. A Spring Activity Packet for Second Grade. This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics and behavior of frogs and toads. Strategies for using these activities with second grade students are also provided. The pre-trip activities include differentiating between amphibians and other animals, identifying frogs and toads, investigating the frog's life cycle, and examining food chains. The indoor and outdoor field trip activities conducted at the DEEC are designed to reinforce the concepts examined in school. These activities (and lists of formal and non-formal field trip objectives) are provided in a separate field trip guide. The post-trip activities include raising tadpoles, investigating amphibian behavior, looking for amphibians near school and home, and completing art exercises. The activities (together with the related activity sheets) provide opportunities for students to practice such skills as sequencing, comparing, classifying, and working cooperatively during science, art, language arts, and social studies lessons.   [More]  Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Animals, Biology, Ecology

Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip (1982). Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many different subjects can make use of them. Although specific objectives are given for each activity, the unit has two general objectives: (1) to help students develop improved knowledge about marine fish, and (2) to develop increased awareness of the beauty and complex interrelatedness of marine fish. Students learn about these complex interrelationships by studying fish shapes, classes of fish, sharks, bony fish, fish feeding, commercial fishing, recreational fishing, deep sea fishing, fish aging, and growth. The bulk of the unit consists of student materials and activities including arts and crafts, creative writing, fish in literature, a lesson on cleaning and preparing fish, visual aids, games, fish observation, dissection instructions and diagrams, identification keys, tables, and checklists. Teacher resources include recipes, organizational resources, a directory of fish packers, and an annotated bibliography of books and films.   [More]  Descriptors: Dissection, Ecology, Educational Games, Environmental Education

Brophy, M.; Fryars, M. (1983). Conserving Our Environment. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 13. Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit focuses on: (1) basic ecological and conservation concepts; (2) problems and complexities of environmental decision-making; (3) skills needed to carry out environmental field work; (4) the nature and consequences of environmental pollution; (5) development of positive attitudes toward conservation in Seychelles; (6) the role played by plants in providing food and oxygen for man and other animals; and (7) soil erosion and how it can be prevented. Provided for the unit is a student workbook and a set of teaching notes. The teaching notes include the general aims of the unit, and a lesson plan for each topic area. Each lesson plan includes a suggested time frame, a list of objectives, a list of equipment needed, and a suggested lesson format. This format includes suggestions for introducing the lesson, instructional strategies (emphasizing procedures for student activities), and evaluation methods. The student workbook includes procedures for completing the unit activities and a list of new words keyed to page numbers in the workbook. A conservation role playing exercise is also provided. Descriptors: Conservation Education, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Development, Decision Making

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 611 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Amanda W. McConney, Grand Rapids Center for Environmental Study, George Dawson, Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton), Fran Schmidt, Winnipeg. Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Alice Friedman, Douglas. Div. of Wildlife Conservation. Alaska State Dept. of Fish and Game, John E. Penick, and Neil De Jong.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1988). The "Visual Cliff" Transformed: A Factoranalytic Definition of Affordances. Report 25. The problem investigated in this study was formulated against a background of the theory of affordance as it was tested with the famous "Visual Cliff" experiment. The present study is based on the assumption that perceivers can detect transformational as well as structural invariants not only in the context of the classical "Visual Cliff" experiments but also when their basic assumptions are transformed into the social realm. On the hypothesis that structural invariants can be defined as an invariant combination of variables of significance for the perception of social structure, a series of three factor analytic studies was conducted with a sample of 611 subjects. The first study involved 214 inservice teachers and 57 high school students in Sweden; the second study involved 180 residents of the Lund-Malmo area of southern Sweden; and the third study involved 160 university and college students in Sweden. The three studies were used to: (1) reduce an initial data set in the empirical approach to the Gibsonian concept of affordance; (2) extend the search for a two-component structure; and (3) confirm the existence of invariance in the affordance structure. Despite different sets of variables, different sample subjects, and a time interval of 7 years, it was possible to infer the existence of two ecological components defining the transformed "Visual Cliff". The first specifies the nature of change (the development of worth), while the second specifies the structure that undergoes change (the visibility of developed worth).   [More]  Descriptors: Change, College Students, Ecology, Factor Analysis

Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton). (1991). Adopt a Stream. This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group leader. Discussion of the factors that affect stream habitat and water quality is supplemented by case studies that can be used as the basis for a debate of positions represented in the studies. The second section provides four sets of activities through which students explore and understand stream and riparian habitat and the effects of resource development. Activities are presented for the five levels through which the program is developed: concept, awareness, investigation, impact, and action. Three appendices contain a glossary of 120 terms, a list of 24 information and funding sources, and a list of curriculum and program links in Alberta. Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Ecology, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries

Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI. (1993). Tree Amigos. Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains projects, activities and resources that can be used in the classroom and in community programs. The first section, "Tree Amigos Action Projects," contains ideas, strategies, and success stories of Tree Amigos programs. It also contains forms, logo sheets, and other materials that can be duplicated. The second section, "Learning Activities," contains activities for all age levels that can help reinforce concepts related to action projects involving a classroom, school, or community. The activities are grouped into five categories: (1) trees; (2) ecosystems; (3) land use; (4) people and resources; and (5) reduce, reuse, and recycle. Materials in the third section, "Background Learning for Teachers," provide information about a variety of subjects that can be related to the action projects and learning activities. Some may serve as hand-outs for advanced junior high and high school students. The final section, "Resources," contains materials for promoting and implementing a Tree Amigos program. The resources include bibliographies, video lists, reference lists, and other materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Cultural Awareness, Cultural Exchange, Ecology

Alaska State Dept. of Fish and Game, Douglas. Div. of Wildlife Conservation. (1989). Alaska Wildlife Week–The Brant Game and the Caribou Game. Unit 7. Together, We Can Help Wildlife. Wildlife is often described as one of Alaska's most important and valuable resources. Helping wildlife can take many forms. This document contains the directions and parts of two games for use with the "Alaska Wildlife Week" materials. The games "Brant for the Future", a simulation of bird and human interactions in the Pacific flyway, and "The Caribou Game", a simulation of caribou population management, are both included. Game boards, activity cards, score cards, background information, directions, and suggestions for modifications and options are contained in this packet. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Educational Games, Elementary School Science

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). (1991). The State of the Environment. This report reviews the progress achieved in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in attaining environmental objectives over the past two decades–the lifetime of most environmental policies and institutions. The report is organized in three parts. Part I examines the agenda for the 1990s: global atmospheric issues, air, inland waters, the marine environment, land, forests, wildlife, solid waste, and noise. Although focused on the relationships between the state of the environment, economic growth, and structural change in OECD countries, the data are analyzed in the context of world ecological and economic interdependence and the need for sustainable development. Part II, "A Changing Economic Context," includes chapters on agriculture, industry, transport, energy, and socio-demographic changes. Part III, "Managing the Environment: Towards Sustainability," details both economic and international responses. The report draws on the OECD's environmental database, as well as other evidence and scientific expertise accumulated by OECD. It also builds on information from national reports on the state of the environment and from national environmental yearbooks now available in most Member countries. A preliminary set of environmental indicators based on this report was published in the same year as a companion volume. Descriptors: Agriculture, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecology

Lourenco, Jose Seixas (1990). The Mission of the Amazonian Universities in Economic Development and Environmental Preservation. The Association of Amazonian Universities (UNAMAZ) was created in September 1987 and is involved in a collective effort to find ways to promote the Amazonian region's nonpredatory development, recognizing its limitations and taking into account its potential. With deforestation taking place at ever-increasing speed, it has become necessary to intensify scientific research using an interdisciplinary approach, with emphasis given to the interaction between natural and social sciences. UNAMAZ programs have focused on preparation and training of human resources for the elaboration and execution of integrated projects, environmental education, and development of an information system in science and technology. UNAMAZ has promoted a series of courses, workshops, seminars, and meetings on scientific and technologic policies, specialist preparation, agri-forestry management, mercury contamination control, and other topics. Participating institutions have reached a consensus about the need to implement new strategies for regional development, based on economic and ecological zoning and a scientific and technological policy to strengthen local universities and research centers. These strategies call for increased cooperation with international organizations and the governments of developed countries. Descriptors: College Role, Conservation (Environment), Cooperative Programs, Ecological Factors

Schmidt, Fran; Friedman, Alice (1990). Come In Spaceship Earth. Kids as Crew Members. Peace Works Series. This program, for grades 4 through 12, introduces students to the concepts that result in cooperative work for the survival and improvement of the quality of life of the human family. In addition to the teacher's guide presented here, the program comes with a music video recorded in seven languages, reproducible pages, a class simulation game, and a poster of Planet Earth. The guide includes the following sections: (1) "To See the World" (an introduction); (2) "Connections"; (3) "Who Speaks for Earth?"; (4) Terra II–A Spaceship Earth Simulation"; and (5) an appendix that lists 17 environmental organizations, 16 resource organizations, 4 young peoples' groups, 3 pen-pal programs, and 5 games and projects. Sections 1-3 are further divided into a total of 16 subsections containing activities and discussion materials, each beginning with brief guidelines for teaching that section. The guide concludes that the interconnection that binds all people and nations must be recognized and developed to ensure the survival of Spaceship Earth. Descriptors: Children, Classroom Techniques, Conservation (Environment), Cooperation

Dawson, George (1991). ScienceVision: An Inquiry-Based Videodisc Science Curriculum. As a result of declining scores, the National Science Foundation has funded numerous materials-development grants. Largest among these is the Interactive Media Science (IMS) Project at Florida State University (FSU) in Tallahassee. This project's mandate is to design, develop, and produce six level III interactive videodisc programs for middle school science instruction. These innovative programs will provide students with numerous opportunities to become involved in activities that would be impossible for them in the normal classroom setting. Using the ScienceVision program, students are able to conduct experiments, visit locations, listen to experts, make decisions, collect data, and solve the problems posed on the videodisc. Factors influencing the design and development of the six discs are: (1) prior research into instructional videodisc technology; (2) characteristics of the target audience; (3) capabilities of the medium; (4) the inquiry-based learning philosophy advocated by the project; and (5) the state of technology in the schools. Developed by experienced teachers, the program was also designed to address the limits of the classroom. The fundamental assumption of ScienceVision is that science education should be multidisciplinary and should provide a general science background for all students. The goals of ScienceVision are twofold: to provide students with a valid understanding of science as a human enterprise and to present science as a search for knowledge based upon interpretation of data. The content, context, cognition, inquiry-based learning, reasons why level III interactive videodiscs should be used, classroom structure, hardware requirements, research with ScienceVision, and educational implications of ScienceVision are topics of discussion. A list of contact persons is included. An overview and status of the project's products are appended. EcoVision, ErgoMotion, AstroVision, Chemical Pursuits, Life Skills, TerraVision, and Water and Weather are the programs that are described.   [More]  Descriptors: Astronomy, Chemistry, Computer Assisted Instruction, Critical Thinking

McConney, Amanda W.; And Others (1994). The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students. In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a spectrum of possibilities previously explored in class activities and discussions. In the second phase of the study, nine science teachers implemented the curriculum unit in their classrooms after attending a two-day training workshop. Teachers first administered environmental decision-making pretests to their students who had been randomly assigned in intact classes to experimental (interdisciplinary rainforest curriculum unit) and control (conventional curriculum) groups. On completion of the three-week unit, environmental decision-making posttests were completed by both experimental and control students. Inferential results implied that students exposed to the interdisciplinary curriculum unit offered more supporting statements for their environmental decisions as compared to control students. It was evident that females used more alternative reasoning categories than their male counterparts when reaching an environmental decision. These results support the use of interdisciplinary curricula for enriching the environmental decision-making of secondary students.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Evaluation, Decision Making

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). (1993). Environmental Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Training Discussion Paper No. 112. This report describes environmental training in the Federal Republic of Germany, confined to that provided in vocational schools and industrial establishments. It also covers the further training of environmental trainers in such establishments. Following an introduction (Chapter I), Chapter II outlines the politico-educational background of job-related environmental studies. The next four chapters (Chapters III-VI), examine the integration of environmental protection into four training sectors by means of examples or case studies, referring also to the organizational context in each case. These chapters focus on environmental studies in on-the-job training, environmental studies in the further training of training personnel, environmental training in technical colleges, and environmental training in further training for teachers. Chapter VII maps out perspectives for the improvement of environmental training in the sectors examined, on the basis of the programs described and of the current debate on environmental training. (Sixty endnotes are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Conservation (Environment), Continuing Education, Developed Nations

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office. (1990). Great Minds? Great Lakes!. This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a variety of hands-on activities designed to illustrate the major points of each lesson. A map of the Great Lakes is provided for photocopying and can be used with the discussion points and activities. Topics include the history of the Great Lakes, shipwrecks, water use, acid rain, air pollution, lake clean-up, groundwater, surface runoff, industrial runoff, and sediment pollution. General facts about each of the Great Lakes are listed.    [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Education

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). (1991). Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote. This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is comprised of 18 environmental indicators, followed by 7 key indicators reflecting economic and population changes of environmental significance. It includes indicators of environmental performance, some relating to environmental quality itself (e.g., river quality, nature protection), some to national environmental goals (e.g., sustainable use of water resources, controlling waste generation), and some to international environmental agreements and issues (e.g., sulphur oxide emissions, trade in forest products). For each indicator, an introductory statement is given, accompanied by the basic data and a graphic illustration providing information on trends since 1970, where possible, as well as information on the present state. The document is printed in both English and French versions in parallel columns. Descriptors: Agriculture, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecology

De Jong, Neil, Comp. (1991). An Activity Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park. Grades 4-6. Everglades National Park is recognized as one of the most threatened National Parks in the country. Human and technological intervention has affected the park's water resources, fauna and flora through the introduction of foreign species. This curriculum-based activity guide is intended for intermediate grade students. It has been designed from a myriad of educational activities mutually created by classroom teachers and park staff, and used in the park's Environmental Education program. It is designed to meet the needs of teachers and students who may never visit the park as well as for on-site lessons about the everglades ecosystem. The document presents the following: (1) four activities to introduce students to the purpose of the National Park System, and basic concepts associated with the Everglades ecosystem; (2) six activities that introduce components of the ecosystem, the interrelation of these components, and recommendations for future use of the environment that will impact these components; (3) seven activities that focus on the importance of plants and trees in the Everglades, and an evaluation scheme concerning future human impact upon them; (4) 12 activities that focus on the wildlife of the Everglades food chains; (5) eight activities involving the issues of timing, quantity, quality, and distribution of water resources in the Everglades; and (6) a series of appendices that provide background information for the activities, supplementary activities, songs, a vocabulary of common Everglade and ecological terms, and a list of resource materials and bibliography. Each lesson plan begins with a section containing pertinent subject areas, length of activity, location, and key vocabulary. This section is followed by instructional objectives and methods, background information, materials, procedures, and an evaluation section.   [More]  Descriptors: Biodiversity, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Endangered Species

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. (1991). Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide. This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially the same through the first 16 pages, after which the core units vary appropriately for each academic level. Three themes and units within those themes which are carried through the K-4 program include: (1) environmental interdependency and interaction– microbes and ecosystems (grade 7); (2) matter and energy–light /physical properties/physical changes or matter (grade 7); and (3) earth, time and space–rocks, minerals and soils/the observable universe (grade 7). Appendices include: (1) K-9 program overview; (2) science processes development: K-9; (3) science processes development: problem solving, K-9; (4) objectives and concepts for STS interactions; (5) K-9 STS content; (6) uses of computers in science; (7) safety in science; (8) women in science; (9) science fairs; (10) basic equipment lists for grades 5-9; (11) directions for using the microscope; and (12) a copy of the response questionnaire for the K-9 program of studies. Descriptors: Astronomy, Chemistry, Classroom Environment, Curriculum Guides

Penick, John E., Ed. (1986). Earth Science. Focus on Excellence, Volume 3, Number 3. Eight examples of innovative and outstanding earth science programs are described. These programs were selected using state criteria and at least four independent reviewers. While Project Synthesis offered a desired state, these examples of excellence provided views of what is already a reality. The goals of an exemplary science program are provided along with the criteria for excellence. Programs described are: (1) "Computer Assisted Laboratory Science"; (2) "Geology Is"; (3) "Ninth Grade Earth Science"; (4) "Accelerated Earth and Space Science"; (5) "Earth Science for the Twenty-First Century"; (6) "Indoor, Outdoor Earth Science"; (7) "Middle Earth Science"; and (8) "Earth Science Program." A review and critique of earth science exemplary programs is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Critical Thinking, Demonstration Programs, Earth Science

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 610 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Margaret Tunstall, Jennifer Kier, Health North Carolina State Dept. of Environment, Boston. Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Alfred W. Crosby, Randy Ormston, Sara Bradley, Helen Nader, Elenor Hodges, and Connect.

Nix, Suzanne Dee (1993). Establishing a Moscow-Florida Middle School Cross-Cultural Linkage for Global Environmental Collaboration. To prepare students for the 21st century, students must be taught not only how to think, but also to think from a global perspective. As an extension of the Sister Schools Project of Dade County, Florida, this practicum centered on developing a Moscow-Florida, cross-cultural educational linkage between a school in Moscow, Russia, and a middle school in South Florida. Dealing with shared environmental concerns, Moscow and Florida teachers collaborated to develop curriculum resources, strategies, techniques and activities to identify common global environmental concerns and to find possible solutions to these concerns. A major joint identified concern was the effect of global ecological imbalance on human health and disease. Educators from both schools engaged students in the cognitive processing skills of critical and creative thinking and in exploring the affective areas of attitudes, feelings and values. After inservice training on the teaching strategies of critical thinking and creative thinking skills, Florida teachers demonstrated a 21 percent increase in the actual teaching of these skills. While unable to establish an on-line telecommunications system between the sister schools, the sharing of ongoing correspondence was accomplished through the conventional methods of letter writing, faxing, telephoning, and personal delivery from persons traveling between the two countries. The results of this sharing and research were videotaped in an Earth Summit simulation and a jointly produced newsletter which included results of community surveys, creative writings, cultural art, pen friend correspondence and research results. The significance of this practicum resulted in the implementation of a project among educators from two diverse cultures which demonstrates that mutual respect and understanding can be established by working on a common concern. Seventeen appendices include questionnaires and survey results.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Ecology

Lorson, Mark V.; And Others (1993). Integrating Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education: Resources and Guidelines. The Curriculum File. It has been reported that very little time is spent in the classroom on environmental education subjects unless the teacher has a special interest in the specific topic of study. This lack of time for environmental education coupled with the lack of adequate time allotted for mathematics and science instruction suggests that integrating the three–mathematics, science, and environmental education–into one learning activity can be a productive use of educational time at any grade level. This document presents a justification for integrating these subject areas. It then presents descriptions of 25 projects that are resources for integrated teaching activities for primary and secondary education, all with citations. The activities are documented in the ERIC database and most are reported with ERIC Document Reproduction Service Numbers. (Contains 12 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Class Activities, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum

Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy (1990). A Rainforest Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds [Second Edition.]. This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student worksheets, posters, activity cards, and a music audiotape: "Song of the Forest," with a booklet of lyrics. The teacher's guide suggests interdisciplinary activities which meet the United Kingdom's National Curriculum requirements and encourage active learning as students explore ideas and discuss issues related to tropical rainforests. Activities will take about 10 half days to complete or may be used as a basis for a half term's theme work on tropical rainforests. Students are invited to consider the different lifestyles of indigenous Kelabit and Yanomamo peoples; explore different aspects of ecological, cultural, and economic interdependence; investigate the relative meanings of the terms wealth and poverty; analyze the power people have and how they use it; and raise questions about the long term effects of actions taken today. Students are involved in developing a range of skills, engaged in exploring attitudes and values, and encouraged to practice collaborative learning. In addition to background information and sequentially presented activities, the teacher's guide includes instructions for using the supplementary materials, teaching points and interdisciplinary extensions, National Curriculum Attainment Targets, and recommended resources. Descriptors: Area Studies, Ecology, Elementary Education, Environmental Education

Connect (1992). Connect: UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter. 1991-1992. This document consists of the eight issues of the UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter published in 1991 and 1992. The lead article in the March 1991 issue, "From Awareness to Action via Nonformal Environmental Education," discusses the different methods to translate and transmit environmental education concepts to citizens in simple and understandable terms. Particularly targeted by this effort are women of the developing world. Methods cited include use of television and radio, popular theater, group discussions, and nature museums. The lead article in the June 1991 issue, "A Universal Environmental Ethic: The Ultimate Goal of Environmental Education," proposes that the development of an environmental ethic that asks individuals to think globally and act locally should draw from environmental cultures. The article discusses the development of environmental ethics in several religious cultures. The lead article in the September 1991 issue, "Environmental Education for University Students," discusses the development of courses that provide intensive environmental education and training for students in two special groups: (1) student scientists, technologists and other future experts dealing directly with environmental concerns; and (2) students of professions whose future work will have an influence and impact on environmental management. The lead article in the December 1991 issue, "Incorporating Environmental Education into Industrial Education," discusses an environmental education curriculum for Industrial Schools. The lead article in the September 1992 issue, "Environment or Development–A False Alternative?", discusses recent advocacy of sustainable development. Topics discussed include: (1) Models to illustrate that sustainable development is the intersection of social, economic and environmental goals; (2) principles for sustainable development supported by the International Chamber of Commerce; (3) sustainable development in the humid tropics; and (4) environmental education for women. The lead article in the December 1992 issue discusses Biodiversity, the necessity to protect endangered plant and animal species, and how to infuse biodiversity in the curriculum through environmental education.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Programs, Buddhism, College Curriculum, College Students

Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston. (1996). Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition. This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The seventh section, "Auditing Your School," entails a comprehensive water audit of the school building itself. Additional activity ideas, articles and readings, a collection of dilemmas for class discussion and independent research, recommended films, a bibliography of water in literature, a reference guide, and a glossary are also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Environmental Education, High Schools

Ohio State Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbus. Div. of Parks and Recreation. (1997). Portapark. It is not always easy to get a naturalist to visit schools and it is often difficult to transport school groups to a state park. Hence, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) Division of Parks and Recreation developed Portapark to provide teachers with educational activities, techniques, and ideas. These activities are aimed specifically at the elementary grade levels, but are adaptable to other age groups and situations. They are designed to be interactive, hands-on, multisensory, and interdisciplinary and each activity is designed to meet a stated educational objective. Activities cover such themes as protective coloration, alternative uses for items, trash, environmental stewardship, nature's interdependencies, and adaptations. The packet begins with presentation ideas to help teachers understand important points for teaching in a natural setting. An activities overview section describes the format and offers tips for personalizing the activities. The activities section contains 13 activities, each of which includes a stated purpose, a materials list, activity ideas, and discussion questions. Activity extenders offer ideas to add to an activity when the activity hasn't filled the available time or when students could use a quick exercise to reinforce a previous lesson. These include games and trivia cards. The final section describes ideas for class projects, some of which can be extended for several weeks or throughout the year.   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation Education, Curriculum Enrichment, Ecology, Educational Games

Crosby, Alfred W.; Nader, Helen (1989). The Voyages of Columbus: A Turning Point in World History. The far-reaching and transforming interactions of the Old World and the New are known today as "the Columbian Exchange." Part 1 of this booklet is an introduction by John J. Patrick dealing with teaching about the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Part 2, "Columbus and Ecological Imperialism," by Alfred W. Crosby, provides an ecological perspective on the conditions and consequences of the Columbian exchange. It discusses how plants, pathogens, and animals moved from one hemisphere to the other and changed natural environments and cultures. The devastating effects of Old World microbes on New World peoples and the subsequent shifts in the genetic composition of populations in the Americas are described. Part 3, "Christopher Columbus: The Hero and the Historian," by Helen Nader points out that one key to understanding the Columbian voyages and their consequences is accurate information about Columbus and his deeds. This requires reliable documents, but in the past, the editions and translations of the pertinent documents have not been trustworthy. Nader uses her own translation of the "Book of Royal Privileges" to provide a reinterpretation of the history of Columbus and his accomplishments. Two abbreviated versions of these primary sources are presented in the appendix along with a chronology of events in the life of Columbus, the family tree of Columbus, and a map of the first voyage of Columbus. The document concludes with a 29-item bibliography.   [More]  Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), American Indians, Animals, Biographies

Brody, Michael J. (1993). Student Understanding of Water and Water Resources: A Review of the Literature. This paper reviews the educational research related to student understanding of water and water resources. The literature is drawn primarily from science and environmental education literature and is divided into student knowledge of: physical and chemical properties, biology, earth systems and water resources. The majority of work has been in the area of physics and chemistry and indicates: very low levels of student comprehension, a direct relationship to atomic and kinetic molecular theory and a large number of misconceptions. Children's biological knowledge related to water, although studies are limited to diffusion, osmosis and circulation, appears similarly incomplete with numerous misconceptions. Earth systems knowledge related to water centers around the concept of the water cycle which is poorly understood by all students. The least amount of student knowledge in any area is related to water resources and may reflect the complex interdisciplinary nature of this subject. Finally, multiple studies have drawn the conclusion that older students who have taken science courses have similar level of knowledge as elementary students and they possess more misconceptions about water and water resources. Contains 51 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Biology, Chemistry, Cognitive Measurement, Earth Science

Brody, Michael J. (1993). A Comparison of Maine and Oregon Students' Science Knowledge Related to Marine Science and Natural Resources. A comparison was made of student understandings of marine science and marine resource concepts in two geographically distant but similar sociocultural regions of the United States. The study is based on the nature of ecological events, students' understanding in the context of meaningful learning, and the cultural context in which learning takes place. One hundred and fifty-nine Oregon students and 157 Maine students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades were interviewed using modified clinical interview techniques. Results indicate great similarity in a number of conceptual areas and misconceptions. However, there was a distinct difference in some geological and natural resource areas. These differences may be attributable to regional, geo-cultural differences between the samples. One table and one figure present study findings.   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Concept Formation, Cultural Context, Ecology

Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy (1988). An Arctic Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds. This resource packet includes: a teacher's guide; reproducible student worksheets; student activity cards; a simulation game; and a picture book, "The Gifts of 'Kaila.'" The materials are organized in three parts. Part one aims to help students understand something of the beauty and magnificence of the Arctic. Introductory activities include art and craft work, model making, and use of picture books. The second part investigates the historical background of European involvement in the Arctic region. Through the simulation game, "Life in the Barrens," knowledge and understanding of the Arctic ecosystem is reinforced and extended. Through role playing, the influence of whaling ships and industry upon the sea dependent lives of the Inuit is analyzed. A contemporary Sami child living in Samiland in Norway is studied in the third section. Present-day influences and threats upon the indigenous Sami way of life are considered. In addition to background information and sequentially presented activities, the teacher's guide includes instructions for using the supplementary materials, teaching points and interdisciplinary extensions, and recommended resources. Descriptors: Area Studies, Art Activities, Cultural Maintenance, Culture Conflict

Tunstall, Margaret; Kier, Jennifer; Dixon, Cheryl; Bradley, Sara; Hodges, Elenor; Levey, Sharon (1997). Nature's Web: Caring for the Land. National Wildlife Week Educator's Guide, April 19-25, 1998 = Nature's Web: El Cuidado de la Tierra. National Wildlife Week Guia para el Educador, April 19-25, 1998. This guide features Aldo Leopold's land ethic woven into a series of activities that also represent the five core issues of most concern to the National Wildlife Federation (NWF): (1) wetlands; (2) water quality; (3) land stewardship; (4) endangered habitats; and (5) sustainable communities. Each activity is introduced by a biographical sketch of a Steward of the Earth–a person or group who has embraced the land ethic through action. The biography is followed by background information for the activity, procedure, and reflective writing suggestions. Each activity lists a learning objective, grade level, materials and time required, curriculum links, and resources. Activities cover such issues as habitats for buffalo, mangrove trees and salt-water wetlands, pollutants and frog deformities, and succession in the forest. Students participate in and understand the methods of scientific study through on-site activities. This guidebook also contains a glossary, resource lists, and a teacher questionnaire.   [More]  Descriptors: Ecology, Elementary Education, Environmental Education, Experiential Learning

Ormston, Randy, Ed. (1979). One Earth: Why Care? Red Cross Youth International Development Resource Package. To examine the cultural characteristics of a society without exploring the human condition of that society and how it relates to all as citizens on this planet is to ignore the realities of today. Most Canadians see global problems as massive and overwhelming. Some are uninformed and others are misinformed. As a result, gross misconceptions have developed that are popular and are used by many as a reason for not meeting their responsibilities as citizens of the world. Canadians should know the fallacies behind popular misconceptions and they should be prepared to make intelligent decisions about the global problems for which they soon will assume responsibility. This resource package was developed toward that end. Seven independent, nonsequential units involving popular misconceptions, are presented. Some of the unit titles are: (1) "Why don't they stop having babies?"; (2) "They're poor because they're lazy"; and (3) "Why don't they find a better place to live?" Each unit has a theme poster for discussion. The right hand pages of the package were designed for student use and can be duplicated while the left-hand pages provide additional information for teachers. The units were designed for teachers to extract selected portions for independent use. A preliminary survey is included that should reveal which misconceptions are most popular in a given classroom. Four world maps and a list of 12 films dealing with world problems are included, and three additional sources of resource material (a world data chart and a chart of food nutrient values) are appended. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Class Activities, Curriculum Enrichment, Developing Nations

North Carolina State Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh. Div. of Parks and Recreation. (1997). Wild Wonderful Water. South Mountains State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-5. This curriculum packet was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of South Mountains State Park, North Carolina. Targeted for grades 4 through 7, this packet meets the established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Students are exposed to major concepts such as water quality, indicator species, stewardship of natural resources, watersheds, natural resource management, the Jacob's Fork River, river basins, riparian areas, and water pollution (point and nonpoint sources). The packet is divided into eight sections: (1) introduction to the North Carolina State Parks system, South Mountains State Park, and the activity packet; (2) activity summary and correlation chart showing how each activity correlates with Department of Public Instruction objectives; (3) pre-visit activities; (4) on-site activities; (5) post-visit activities; (6) vocabulary; (7) references; and (8) a scheduling worksheet, permission form, and program evaluation form. Each set of activities is comprised of three activities. The first activity includes curriculum objectives for grade levels 4-5. The second and third activities list learning skills and subject areas covered. All activities contain descriptions of location, group size, estimated time needed, appropriate season, materials needed, major concepts covered, and activity objectives, as well as background information for the educator, instructions, and worksheets. Most activities also include extensions, assessment tools, and student information sheets.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Curriculum Guides, Earth Science, Ecology

Leuthold, David (1989). Environment and Culture in India. India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the result of the need for wood for manufacturing and fuel, and the expansion of farmlands. India is prone to both drought and floods, and soil erosion also is a serious problem. Air pollution in both urban and rural areas, originating from fires, factories, and automobiles causes a high national incidence of respiratory and other diseases. Seventy percent of available water in India is badly polluted. Rivers and wells are contaminated by human and industrial waste, causing widespread occurrence of water-related disease. Increased reduction of animal species is yet another environmental problem. The lack of resources to deal effectively with environmental problems and the influence of Indian cultural factors seriously hinder solving these problems. Necessary solutions will require substantial effort and resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Air Pollution, Area Studies, Conservation (Environment), Cultural Influences

Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK. (1997). People and the Arctic: A Prospectus for Research on the Human Dimensions of the Arctic System (HARC) for the National Science Foundation Arctic System Science Program. The U.S. Global Change Research Program was established in 1990 to develop scientific projections of anticipated impacts of the changing biosphere on humans and social systems. As part of this program, the National Science Foundation created the Arctic System Science Program (ARCSS). This document describes the ARCSS Human Dimensions of the Arctic System (HARC) initiative to consider how humans interact with physical and biological environmental change in the Arctic. HARC cuts across traditional social, biological, and physical science disciplines; employs varied methodologies; collects data across a broad range of time and spatial scales; and involves local people and communities in research design and implementation. Five fundamental research questions address the impacts of human activity on arctic and global systems; types and sources of global change in the Arctic; effects of global changes on human societies in the Arctic; alternative approaches to current and future problems; and effects of arctic changes on people living outside the region. Ethical research issues include informed consent by individuals and communities, community involvement in research, the use and distribution of traditional indigenous knowledge, and intellectual property rights. HARC includes funding and guidelines for linking research with science education in arctic community schools. (Contains 51 references, other relevant publications, reviewers and participants in a related workshop, and photographs).   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Area Studies, Community Involvement, Ecology

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 609 of 627)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include College Station. Sea Grant Coll. Program. Texas A and M Univ, Gerald R. Culen, Carole G. Basile, Teresa Mourad, Sarah A. Snyder, Kimi Hosoume, Michele Morrone, Bob Jickling, Donald B. Young, and Ruth A. Wilson.

Braus, Judy, Ed. (1987). Endangered Species: Wild & Rare, NatureScope. Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "The Big Picture," giving information and activities on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and the reasons for helping endangered species; (2) "The Habitat Connection," providing information and activities on the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants; (3) "Poachers, Poisons and Other Problems," providing information and activities on factors other than habitat destruction such as wildlife trade, and pollution that are putting species in danger; (4) "Bouncing Back," describing information and activities on the ways in which people are helping endangered species; (5) "Crafty Corner," providing ideas for art projects; and (6) Appendix, featuring a glossary and reference information. Descriptors: Animals, Art Activities, Conservation (Environment), Ecology

Snyder, Sarah A. (1994). Energy, Atmosphere, and Climate. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment. This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about how daily human activities, such as energy use, add pollutants to the atmosphere. The lesson is divided into seven parts and can be taught in two or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Total Energy Use by Fuel Type, 1991"; (2) "Facts about Air Pollution"; (3) "Facts about Global Warming and Ozone Depletion"; and (4) "Reducing Carbon Emissions." Transparency masters are titled: (1) "Trends in Global Energy Consumption"; (2) "How the Greenhouse Effect Works"; (3) "Contributions to Global Warming"; (4) "Global Fossil Fuel Consumption, 1950-90"; (5) "Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations, 1860-1990"; (6) "The Greenhouse Index: 10 Countries with the Highest Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 1991″; (7)"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, 1979-1991"; (8) "Number of Vehicles in the World"; and (9) "Energy Intensities in Developed Countries." Descriptors: Citizenship, Climate, Conservation (Environment), Developed Nations

Jickling, Bob, Ed. (1996). A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education (Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, July 14-16, 1995). The papers in this proceedings explore two themes: "what environmental ethics can do for teachers," and "what teachers can do for environmental ethics." The papers are: "A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education: Considering the Context" (Bob Jickling); "Planning for the Future: Workshop Observations and Recommendations" (Colloquium Participants); "Welcoming Remarks" (Shirley Adamson, et. al.); "Transferring Wisdom through Storytelling" (Louise Profeit-LeBlanc); "The Role of Socially Evolved Ideals in Environmental Ethics Education in Canada and the Yukon: A Historical Approach Involving the Humanities" (Eugene C. Hargrove); "What Is a Good Way To Teach Children and Young Adults To Respect the Land? (A Panel Discussion)" (Lucy Wren et. al.); "Relational Modes of Knowing: Learning Process Implications of a Humane and Environmental Ethic" (David Selby); "Sacred Land" (Jim Cheney); "An Unwanted Story" (Martha McMahon); "Environmental Education, Liberatory Education and Place-Sensitive Narrative" (Val Plumwood); "The Role of the University, Scientists, and Educators in Promotion of Environmental Literacy" (John Lemons); "Professionalization and Environmental Education: Are We Guarding against Charlatans or Losing the Passion?" (Marilyn MacDonald); "Environmental Education as Values Education: A Critical Framework" (Pamela Courtenay Hall); "Instead of Environmental Education" (Anthony Weston); "Wolves, Ethics, and Education: Looking at Ethics and Education through the Yukon Wolf Conservation and Management Plan" (Bob Jickling); and "Directions for the Future: Environmental Education in British Columbia" (Rick Kool).   [More]  Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Economic Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Sea Grant Coll. Program. (1997). Marine Education: A Bibliography of Educational Materials Available from the Nation's Sea Grant College Programs. Fifth Edition. This bibliography features a compilation of textbooks, curricular materials, and other marine education resource materials developed by individual Sea Grant programs throughout the Unites States. The listing is intended to be used as a tool for teachers and other individuals interested in helping students explore and understand our oceans and Great Lakes. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Biology, Conservation (Environment), Earth Science

Snyder, Sarah A. (1994). Biodiversity. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment. This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the importance of biodiversity, examines why it is threatened, and suggests ways of conserving it. The lesson is divided into seven parts and suggests allowing two or more class periods for completion. Student handouts include: (1) "Test Yourself: How Much Do You Know about Biodiversity?"; (2) "Facts about Biodiversity"; (3) "Collecting Species Data in Costa Rica"; and (4) "Answers to 'How Much Do You Know about Biodiversity?'" Transparency masters are titled: (1) "Species Remaining to be Described"; (2) "Wetland Loss in Selected Industrialized Countries, 1950-80"; (3) "Trends in Deforestation and Population Growth, 1850-1980"; and (4) "Tropical Areas with Rich Floral Diversity." Descriptors: Biodiversity, Citizenship, Conservation (Environment), Developing Nations

Basile, Carole G.; And Others (1997). Nature at Your Doorstep: Real World Investigation for Primary Students. "Nature at Your Doorstep" is an outgrowth of a successful environmental education program offered as a school field trip at a Nature Discovery Center. It was developed and used with thousands of students throughout Bellaire, Texas and the surrounding Houston metroplex. The purpose of this program is to kindle students' curiosity and wonder about the interdependent world of nature of which they are a part, and to foster their responsibility toward the environment. Each unit is designed to guide students through discovery of basic biological concepts using the scientific method as a logical method of inquiry. Students explore questions, formulate hypotheses based on current knowledge, collect data relevant to the questions, and, by creating various forms of representations, analyze their data to formulate conclusions and compare those conclusions with their hypotheses. The 10 units are as follows: (1) Senses; (2) Trees; (3) Birds; (4) Insects and Neighbors; (5) Ants; (6) Biodiversity; (7) Habitats; (8) Communities; (9) Food Webs; and (10) Endangered Species. Each unit provides focus and background material, activities to introduce the topic, suggestions for teaching each data sheet, and extensions for further study. Student data sheet masters are included. All units are integrated with opportunities for learning experiences in science, mathematics, and language arts. Descriptors: Biological Sciences, Ecology, Environmental Education, Ethics

Mourad, Teresa; Morrone, Michele (1997). Directory of Ohio Environmental Education Sites and Resources. This publication is the result of a collaboration between the Environmental Education Council of Ohio (EECO) and the Office of Environmental Education at the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). This directory of environmental education resources within the state of Ohio is intended to assist educators in finding information that can complement local curricula and programs. The directory is divided into three sections. Section I contains information on local environmental education sites and resources. These are grouped by EECO region, alphabetized by county, and further alphabetized by organization name. Resources range from arboretums to zoos. Section II lists resources available at a statewide level. These include state and federal government agencies, environmental education organizations and programs, and resource persons. Section III contains cross-referenced lists of Section I by organization name, audience, organization type, and programs and services to help educators identify local resources. Guidelines for educators to getting the most out of available but scarce resources and guidelines for resource professionals to achieving the greatest possible impact are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Agencies, Conservation Education, Curriculum Enrichment, Ecology

Braus, Judy, Ed. (1992). Diving into Oceans, NatureScope. Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Diving Into Oceans." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "The Physical Ocean," giving information and activities on the physical properties of the ocean including the composition of seawater, waves, currents, and tides, and the topography of the ocean floor; (2) "Life in the Ocean," providing information and activities on what life is like in three major regions of the ocean–sunlit surface waters, dim mid-waters, and dark ocean depths; (3) "Along the Coast and Close to Shore," giving information and activities on the characteristics of beaches, rocky shores, coral reefs, and kelp forests, and the plants and animals that live in these habitats; (4) "People and Oceans," providing information and activities on people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, how people use oceans, and what's being done to protect the sea and its wildlife; (5) "Crafty Corner," providing ideas for art projects; and (6) "Appendix," featuring a glossary and bibliographic information. Descriptors: Animals, Art Activities, Biological Sciences, Conservation (Environment)

Culen, Gerald R. (1994). The Effects of an Extended Case Study on Environmental Behavior and Associated Variables in Seventh and Eighth Grade Students. This paper summarizes a study that assessed the effects of an extended case study that focused on wetland issues with seventh and eighth grade students. The extended case study is an instructional methodology that incorporates the issue investigation/evaluation and action training model. A modified pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was utilized with fifteen intact classes from Illinois and Missouri. Posttest data were collected on the variables of overt environmental behavior, knowledge of ecological foundations, individual locus of control, group locus of control, knowledge of citizenship action skills, and perceived skill in the use of citizenship action skills. Analysis of covariance was used to compare treatment groups and control group means. Statistically significant differences were found with the variable overt environmental behavior. The two experimental treatments were found to be more effective than the control, and the full treatment was found to be more effective then the partial treatment in increasing overt environmental behavior.   [More]  Descriptors: Analysis of Covariance, Case Studies, Control Groups, Ecology

Wilson, Ruth A. (1995). Natural Beginnings: A Teacher Training Model for Early Childhood Educators. This paper presents a description of Natural Beginnings, an early childhood environmental education teacher inservice workshop. The purpose, content, and format of the workshop are discussed, as are evaluation results. Evaluation results indicate that the workshop was highly effective in increasing teachers' confidence in infusing environmental education into an early childhood curriculum, fostering teachers' own understanding and appreciation of the natural environment, introducing teachers to environmental education materials and other resources in the community, and fostering partnerships between early childhood educators and environmental education resource professionals. One unique feature of the workshop was the development and field-testing of new environmental education materials (i.e., activity kits and instructional units) appropriate for the early childhood level. In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of the workshop, participant feedback was also used to develop recommendations for similar workshops in the future. Additional benefits resulting from the workshop include increasing parents' and colleagues' interest and involvement in environmental education activities.   [More]  Descriptors: Activity Units, Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Community Programs

Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC. (1996). Education for Sustainability: An Agenda for Action. Understanding the principles of sustainability and the interdependence of the environment, the economy, and social systems can help individuals learn to make the changes necessary to become effective stewards of natural resources and the environment. This document describes three broad policy recommendations as to how Americans can build concepts of sustainability into educational programs, and 12 strategic action plans for implementing those recommendations. The recommendations provide a framework for a flexible strategy and a toolbox of ideas which can be tailored to educational strategies reflective of individual and community needs. Chapters are as follows: (1) "A Program for Change"; (2) "Formal Education"; (3) "Nonformal Education"; (4) "Cross-Cutting Themes"; and (5)"Moving Forward." Core themes of the program include lifelong learning, interdisciplinary approaches, systems thinking, partnerships, multicultural perspectives, and empowerment. A key feature of the agenda is the Opportunities for Partnerships section at the conclusion of each chapter, which provides names, organizations, and resources to guide future steps. A sampling of programs and successful initiatives is presented to illustrate successful cooperative efforts and partnerships.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Conservation Education, Ecology, Educational Change

Taragan, Barbara (1989). [Enter the World of the Naturalist.] Nature. Teacher's Guide. This curriculum guide was developed for use with public television's Nature series. The materials in the guide are designed to help students actively participate in the study and experience of nature. Students are encouraged to view the programs as naturalists would, observing animals in their environment, noting their behavior, and drawing conclusions. Each lesson in the Teacher's Resource Guide includes: (1) a "Program Overview" that presents background information and brief synopses of the program to be viewed; (2) "Objectives" that provide the teacher with measurement goals; (3) a "Before Viewing Activity" that familiarizes students with the subject and allows them to set purposes for viewing; (4) "Vocabulary" that features definitions of unfamiliar words used in each program; (5) "Discussion Questions" that help students assess the main points of the program; (6) "Suggested Reading" for students who may want to learn more about the topic; and (7) a "Naturalist's Guide" (student worksheet) to be duplicated and distributed to students. The programs highlighted in this guide focus on animal family groupings, exploring the various ways they bear and raise young and share tasks and responsibilities such as hunting and protection. Program titles include "Kali the Lion,""Year of the Jackal,""The Frozen Ocean,""The Land of Beyond," and "The Young Ones."   [More]  Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Animals, Development, Ecological Factors

Young, Donald B.; Pottenger, Francis M. (1992). Water Resource Management. [Student Guide] and Teacher's Guide. This student guide and accompanying teacher's guide are a product of the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) curriculum development project at the University of Hawaii. In the teaching guide, the introduction gives a description of the underlying theory and practice in FAST and includes the FAST instructional model, descriptions of FAST courses, a conceptual framework of the local environment, a schedule and sequence of the units, a description of FAST instructional materials, and a safety advisory. Both the student and teacher guides are made up of eight investigations separated into three sections. In Section A, "Water in My Community," students investigate the water cycle, uses of water, the distribution of water, and local resources related to water resource management. In Section B, "Monitoring Water Quality," students investigate testing water quality, purifying water, and managing water resources. In Section C, "Making Decisions," students simulate the planning of a community in which the dominant feature of the area is a marsh. In the teacher's guide, each investigation includes the following sections: review, introduction of new work, student activities, summary, challenge, rationale, overview, materials, and notes. In the student guide, each investigation may contain the following sections: background information, activity, materials, procedure, summary, and challenge. Concluding the teacher's guide are visual aid and student record book masters. Descriptors: Community Problems, Ecology, Environmental Education, Groundwater

Jones, Teri Crawford; Taragan, Barbara (1993). Land of the Eagle. Nature. Teacher's Guide. This curriculum guide was developed for use with public television's Nature series. The materials in the guide are designed to help students actively participate in the study and experience of nature. Students are encouraged to view the programs as naturalists would, observing animals in their habitats, noting their behavior, examining the environmental, economic, and political factors that affect their condition, and drawing conclusions. Each lesson in the Teacher's Resource Guide includes: (1) a "Program Overview" that presents background information and brief synopses of the program to be viewed; (2) "Before Viewing the Program" that familiarizes students with the program's subject and allows them to set purposes for viewing; and (3) "After Viewing the Program" that provides discussion questions to help students assess the main points of the program. Some lessons also contain: (i) "Objectives" that provide the teacher with measurement goals; (ii) "Vocabulary" that features definitions of unfamiliar words used in each program; and (iii) a "Naturalist's Guide" (student worksheet) to be duplicated and distributed to students. The programs highlighted in this guide examine the natural history of North America. Program titles include "The Great Encounter,""Conquering the Swamps,""Across the Sea of Grass,""The First and Last Frontier,""Confronting the Wilderness,""Into the Shining Mountains,""Living on the Edge," and "Searching for Paradise." (Contains 41 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Earth Science, Ecological Factors, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education

Echols, Jean C.; Hosoume, Kimi; Kopp, Jaine (1997). Eggs Eggs Everywhere. Teacher's Guide. Preschool-1. LHS GEMS. This book supports the National Science Education Standards by giving children an understanding of the characteristics of organisms, outlining the life cycles of organisms, and showing how organisms relate to their environments. Interweaving life science with literature, mathematics, and physical sciences, the unit begins with children participating in "The Chicken Drama," an activity which includes role playing chicks hatching out of eggs. In Activity 2, students begin with Ruth Heller's illustrated book, "Chickens Aren't the Only Ones," for a broad picture of the many animals that hatch from eggs. Students role-play the different animals that hatch from eggs and organize and compare animals by number of legs. As students sort, classify, and graph, they use logical thinking skills to organize data, use numbers in context, and make comparisons. Children also investigate animals that lay their eggs on land and in water. In Activity 3, students get acquainted with a live box turtle by observing, touching, and feeding it. They learn how turtles, fish, and snakes lay eggs, how the eggs hatch, and how the animals live in their environments. Activity 4 has children exploring the movement of plastic eggs and other objects on flat and inclined surfaces. Descriptors: Activity Units, Animals, Biological Sciences, Class Activities

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Bibliography: Ecology (page 608 of 627)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Water Protectors . Info website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Catherine R. Ney, Antonio C. Allem, Joseph Haberer, Matthew J. Brennan, Clearing, Marilu Rioseco, Keith A. Crnic, Dyanne M. Tracy, Naturescope, and Troy North American Association for Environmental Education.

Brennan, Matthew J. (1986). A Curriculum for the Conservation of People and Their Environment, Journal of Environmental Education. Describes an environmental education program being implemented at the United Nations International School in New York. Discusses the scope, structure, and style of the program. The appendices include the conceptual framework (stating nearly 200 individual concepts) and the curriculum framework for kindergarten through grade 12. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Conservation (Environment), Curriculum Design, Ecology

Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat (1996). Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4. Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for Grade 4. The 30 lessons contained within cover a number of topics including weather, plant anatomy, life processes, plants and animal in an ecosystem, and Virginia's natural resources. The lessons are interdisciplinary in their approach, meeting objectives from science, mathematics, oral language, reading, literature, writing, and research skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, Animals, Biology, Ecology

Muir, Patricia S.; McCune, Bruce (1993). Simulating Ecological Complexity Using the Example of Pesticides in Ecosystems, American Biology Teacher. Describes a simulation exercise developed for an introductory biology course for nonmajors. The simulation focuses on the control of western spruce budworms in forests of the western United States. A nonlinear, multivariate simulation model is used. Descriptors: Biology, College Science, Computer Uses in Education, Ecology

Petersen, Chris E. (1996). Publish or Perish in the Community College. Scholarly publication of original work at community colleges is usually an elective pursuit, resulting more from a desire to learn than institutional requirements or financial incentives. At the College of DuPage, in Illinois, one faculty member has undertaken a 10-year, self-initiated research project in the biological sciences, involving students in most areas of the research, including publication. The research has focused on the dynamics of ecosystems, while funding sources have included area conservation foundations and businesses. Participating students must be science majors with a minimum background of 1 year of college-level science-based curriculum. They must also be dependable, of high integrity, patient, and tolerant of adverse working conditions. Motivations for students participating include adding to their resumes, developing interests, and enjoying an alternative learning experience. In addition, every effort is made to see that research is published. For the faculty member, each project requires 200-300 hours of donated time towards experimentation, data analyses, writing, and literature review. Faculty members interested in initiating their own research projects should schedule time for reading and exploration of potential study sites, conduct projects that can be done within the time allowances and with available resources, select reliable student participants, and write for publication.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Ecology, Educational Strategies, Environmental Research

Rioseco, Marilu (1995). Context Related Curriculum Planning for Science Teaching: A Proposal To Teach Science around the Ozone Problem. This paper reports on the dilution effect of the ozone layer which jeopardizes a section of land in Chile from 53 degrees South latitude to 33 degrees South and the necessity of preparing the population for the possible ecological consequences of an increase in ultraviolet radiation. Scientists in Chile assume part of this task by studying the short and long term effects upon different ecosystems. Education also plays a role in that the problem requires an attitude change in the population. A discussion is provided of the task presented to science educators by the ozone problem, including insight into the role that student motivation plays in science learning. A proposal is made which recommends that instruction not start from the basic content and include at a later time a discussion of applications, but start with a real problem and from there motivate the students to seek explanations in the concepts, laws, scientific processes, and procedures. The experiences described in this paper are based on a three-year pilot program in physics.   [More]  Descriptors: Context Effect, Curriculum Development, Ecology, Educational Strategies

North American Association for Environmental Education, Troy, OH. (1997). The Environmental Education Collection: A Review of Resources for Educators. Volume 1. This book is designed to help educators find curricula, multimedia resources, and other educational materials that can enhance the teaching of environmental education in a variety of settings. Curriculum materials included in this compendium were evaluated using a set of guidelines developed by the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE). These guidelines highlight six key characteristics of high-quality environmental education materials: (1) fairness and accuracy; (2) depth; (3) emphasis on skills building; (4) action orientation; (5) instructional soundness; and (6) usability. The first section of this resource guide details approximately 50 environmental education curriculum materials. Entries are listed alphabetically and each contains a summary of the curriculum; information about grade level, subject areas, author, publisher, and price; comments specific to the six key characteristics; and a sample of quotations from the reviewers' evaluation sheets. The second section contains an annotated listing of support materials. Following this section is a matrix that cross-lists all of the materials and their various characteristics. Curriculum materials cover such subjects as recycling, environmental chemistry, geology, biodiversity, deforestation, butterflies and other insects, rainforests, wetlands, and agriculture. Descriptors: Conservation Education, Curriculum Enrichment, Ecology, Educational Resources

Naturescope (1987). The Habitat Connection. Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. Descriptors: Animals, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Education

Ney, Catherine R. (1996). Connections: Ocean Environments. Unit Grade 5. Ocean Environments for Grade 5 is a 12-week interdisciplinary ocean environmental unit designed for teachers to use with their students. The unit emphasizes investigation and understanding of our ocean environments, including their geological, physical, and biological characteristics. It also stresses awareness of public policy decisions related to the assessment of marine organism populations and pollution prevention. The 30 lessons contained within cover a number of topics including matter, sound transmission, biological characteristics of earth, geological characteristics of earth, cells, insulation, and ocean environments. The lessons are interdisciplinary in their approach, meeting objectives from science, mathematics, oral language, reading, literature, writing, research skills, and technology.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Uses in Education, Ecology, Environment, Environmental Education

Kirman, Joseph M. (1990). Don't Just Teach Geography, Teach about Ethics in Geography, History and Social Science Teacher. Argues that geography teachers should help students explore ethical issues in geography, such as questioning where exploitation ends and conservation begins. Outlines guidelines for ethics, considers pedgogical implications, and offers strategies for motivating students and making geography relevant. Descriptors: Codes of Ethics, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Curriculum Development, Ecology

Greenberg, Mark T.; Crnic, Keith A. (1988). Longitudinal Predictors of Developmental Status and Social Interaction in Premature and Full-Term Infants at Age Two, Child Development. The results, which contrasted markedly with findings of major group differences at 12 months of age, indicated that by age two no group differences were apparent on any child development, mother-child interaction, or maternal attitude measures, except that preterms were significantly poorer in motor skills than were full-term infants. Descriptors: Age Differences, Cognitive Development, Comparative Analysis, Ecological Factors

Allem, Antonio C. (1990). Pleas, Plights and Environment: Part I, Environmentalist. Discussed is the continual depletion of the world's natural resources and the plea of conservationists. An examination of the dialectic nature/nurture controversy is used to see whether this may account for the state of disharmony recorded between man and nature. Descriptors: College Science, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Ecological Factors

Haberer, Joseph, Ed. (1987). Current Periodical Literature, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. Provides a selected bibliography of items from the periodic literature that pertain to a variety of variables involved in the relationship between science, technology, and society. Includes the address of the author for the purpose of obtaining reprints. Descriptors: College Science, Ecology, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Sunal, Dennis; Tracy, Dyanne M., Eds. (1991). SSMILES, School Science and Mathematics. An activity in which students establish criteria outlining what constitutes wasted paper, calculate averages, and compute the number of trees needed to produce a measured amount of wasted paper is described. The mathematics and science concepts, objectives, rationale, content overview, lesson outline, and extensions are included. Descriptors: Conservation (Environment), Cooperative Learning, Ecology, Environmental Education

Clearing (1991). The Green Pages: Environmental Education Activities K-12. Presented are 38 environmental education activities for grades K-12. Topics include seed dispersal, food chains, plant identification, sizes and shapes, trees, common names, air pollution, recycling, temperature, litter, water conservation, photography, insects, urban areas, diversity, natural cycles, rain, erosion, phosphates, human population, nuclear energy, environmental hazards, wetlands, and recreational vehicles. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary School Science

Naturescope (1987). The Big Picture. Contains a series of activities which focus on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and on the reasons for helping endangered species. Includes diagrams and illustrations of endangered species. Descriptors: Animals, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Elementary Education

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